So we want to measure hydrocarbons as a percentage of LEL and percentage of Volume.
I have seen HC meters that measures %LEL and those that measure %Volume of HC. And I have seen explosimeters that measure hydrocarbons as both %LEL and %Volume.
These do not switch automatically from LEL to v
The first thing that we need to know is if the line content of the shore line will be blown into the ship's tanks or not.
This information is part of ship shore operational agreement with the loading master before the commencement of the loading operation.
Now let us say that in the ship sho
Vetting inspections are not mandatory by statute or by law. But these inspections have become a necessity for operating a commercial ship.
The cargo owners, terminals and all other parties commercially involved with the ships want to make sure that they have a seaworthy and a safe ship.
Let us say that you are loading in tropical load line zone and destined for a port in summer load line zone.
The entry point of summer load line zone is 10 days sailing and ship's fuel consumption per day is 40 tons.
So from load port to the entry of summer load line, fuel consumption w
All oils cause pollution to the sea and for this reason MARPOL does not distinguish between a good oil and bad oil. Annex I of the MARPOL applies to all type of oils.
The concept of persistent and non persistent oils came into light during the cleaning efforts of major oil pollutions includi
Marpol Annex 1, Regulation 30.4.2 requires every oil tanker delievered after 1 June 1982, required to be provided with segregated ballast tanks or fitted with a crude oil washing system, shall comply with the following requirements
- it shall be equipped with oil piping so designed and instal
Drager tubes do not need to be tested. It is the drager pump that need to be tested for "Leak Test".
Now depending upon the model of drager pump, the leak test procedure could be different. Let us see how to do the Leak test with Drager Accuro pump which is most common Drager pump. To per
Foam is made up of three things
- Foam concentrate
Foam concentrate is also defined by proprtioning ratio the foam is required to be used. So when we have 6% Foam concentrate, it is most effective when 6 parts of foam concentrate is mixed with 94 parts of water to form foam solution