ECDIS passage plan

We have come a long way since ECDIS was brought into our lives.

In the initial days we were just struggling to keep the ENCs updated on ECDIS.

But that is the thing of the past. Most of us know this drill at the back of hands now.

And I have covered quite a few of articles on updating and keeping the ENCs up to date.

Even during the third party inspections, the inspectors are now focussing on the ECDIS in detail.

As even they consider that the period for amateur questions on the ECDIS is over.

One of the area that now require detailing is the passage planning on ECDIS.

Well, actually there is nothing different in the passage planning on ECDIS.

More or less it is same as what we used to do on paper charts. But still it is so much different.

In this blog we will discuss the 7 elements which once plotted would make the passage plan on ECDIS stand out.

Let us start.

1. Route

The first element that you all may have guessed is the route.

And when it comes to choosing the route, there is nothing different from what we do even when were using paper charts.

We need to find the information from all the publications available.

Here is an article that I had written sometime back on using the publications to find the best route to follow.

And once we have all the information, we need to use that to decide the route.

The route that we decide must follow all the company requirements and must be in accordance with the industry guidelines.

Let us see how to go about creating the route on ECDIS (JRC ECDIS).

On the top menu, go to Route -> Route Planning -> Graphical editor.

Route-planning-ECDIS-graphical-editor

Then it is just like drawing a route on the paper chart. Just take the cursor on the starting point and keep on clicking wherever you wish to create a waypoint.

Creating-route-on-ECDIS-by-cursor

When doing that, it would be easier to zoom out and choose a little smaller scale to get the idea of where we need to head to.

And then you can keep on zooming in and out as and when required while creating the routeRoute-on-ECDIS

Once you have created the complete route, you can save the route.

The waypoints created by the graphical editor would most likely be upto 3 decimal places. For ease of reference, you may want to change these waypoints to upto one decimal place.

For that you can go to Route -> Route planning – > table editor and open the recently saved route.

From the table, you can fine-tune the waypoints. For example, you can change the longitude 38 Deg 57.999′ to 39 Degrees.

ECDIS-route-table-editor

2. Route check.

We now need to make sure that the route that we have drawn is not passing through any dangers.

But before we do that, we need to set the safety settings on ECDIS according to our draft for the next voyage.

I have written a blog on ECDIS safety settings in detail and check that out about more information on ECDIS safety settings.

Now to check the route, each ECDIS has a function called “Route check” or “Safety Check”.

Go to the Route -> Route Planning -> Table editor and open the route that you have created for the present voyage.

In the editor, enter the value of the cross track error that you wish to have or that your company or master allows.

The route check function will check if the route (along with the cross track distance) is not passing through any dangers to navigation.

Route-cross-track-error-ECDIS

When we have entered the cross track distances for each leg, click on the “Safety Check”.

The ECDIS will check the route and display all the errors that user need to check physically for.

Safety-check-error-ECDIS

We need to check these error by going to that area of the passage plan on ECDIS.

To do that just select the error and click on Jump.

Safety-check-error-ECDIS-check

This will take the ECDIS to the area of the passage plan where this error is detected.

caution-area-ECDIS-route

For example, if the error is about a caution area, check the detail of the caution area.

This can be done by right-clicking on the ENC and choosing “S-57/C-Map/ARCS Information” and then clicking on the “caution area” symbol.

After assessing the information, Modify the route if required. Otherwise, check the next error.

After checking each error, click on that error and click “disregard”.

disregard-route-check-ECDIS

After you have checked all errors, click on “Ok” and save the route.

You have now completed the route check.

3. Parallel Indexing

Parallel index distances must be marked from the fixed objects on the route.

In the open sea, it is wise to choose any fixed object up to a range of 24 miles or less for marking the parallel index lines.

As your radar will be in the range of less than 12 miles in coastal waters, you can choose to mark parallel index lines from any fixed objects in that range.

And as we all know, the parallel indexing must not be done with floating objects like buoys.

To mark the parallel index lines we use “user map” feature of the ECDIS.

Go to User map -> User map editor.

user-chart

Click on New -> Simple Line and then take the cursor to the point (landmark) from where you want to draw the Parallel index line.

Draw the first line parallel to the course line and then 90 degrees to that to join it to the course line.

parallel-indexing-on-ecdis

You can then click on the “property” on the right corner and change the line color and thickness etc.

ECDIS-PI-line-color

It is better to have the color of the PI-line something other than the course line so that course line can easily be recognized during the voyage by the navigators.

Now we need to write the Parallel Index distance for the PI that we have drawn just now.

Click on New -> Small text. Click at the location near to the PI line where you want the text to appear and then write the text such as “P.I. 3.2 NM.

write-text-for-PI-line-ECDIS

Of course, we need to measure this distance first and write an accurate distance.

You can then click on “OK” and then “Save” on the top menu.

Just enter the name that you want to give to this user map (may be the voyage number) and then click on “Save” to save the user map.

Save-the-user-map-ECDIS

This same user map will be edited for all other markings that you need to plot on the ENCs.

Now finish plotting all the parallel indexing lines and distances from all the radar conspicuous fixed objects on the voyage.

parallel-indexing

4. NO GO Areas

We are required to mark the no-go areas along our route.

These are the areas that are the danger to navigation and we must not navigate into.

But let us say there is a wreck (or shallow waters) about 50NM from our planned route. Do we need to mark this as “No-Go area”?

On a paper chart, the answer to this question was simple.

And the answer was, Yes, we do need to mark it as no go area if it is on voyage chart.

But the ENCs on ECDIS are seamless and the same logic does not apply on ECDIS.

So what is the maximum distance that we need to mark the no-go area upto?

Well, ideally this distance should be provided in the company’s navigation manual.

Alas, most certainly you will not find it there.

So, in the case, a distance can be decided by the master and the same communicated to the navigating officers.

If we have decided the distance of 50NM, we need to mark the No-Go areas in the range of 50NM from our route.

The no go areas must not be marked excessively.

What I commonly see that we sometimes mark the entire shallow water contour as the no go area.

This is wrong because

  • It is not that we cannot cross the shallow contour. We can. The only thing we cannot do is run over the safety depth. And thus the shallow contour is not a no go area.
  • Even if we consider this as a no go area, the distinction of this area is already visible with a different color. Why clutter the ENC further?

The marking for no go area needs to be done for something that the navigator could miss.

Something like an isolated danger, wreck, depth area or an area like with oil rigs that vessel needs to avoid.

We need to identify all such areas and mark these as “No-Go Areas”.

To mark the no-go area, go to User Map -> User map editor and open the user map that you have created for the present voyage.

By now, you should be able to create lines, shapes and add text in the user map.

To mark the user map you need to use these lines and shapes to mark the area as a No-Go area.

Use your artistic skills to decide which shape or line you need to use for marking of No-Go area.

Once marked, go to the property and change the line color, thickness etc.

No-Go-area-ECDIS

Again use the color as something other than the course line color and thickness slightly lesser than the course line.

Finally, write the text as a No-Go area around the marked area.

NO-Go-Area

5. Wheel over position

Whenever there is a large alteration of the course, we need to mark a wheel over position.

This is the position on our initial course at which we need to start altering the course at a pre-planned rate of turn to arrive at the next desired course without running into the danger.

wheel-over-position-courses

Marking of wheel over position is part of the passage planning.

But how to mark this on ECDIS?

The wheel over position depends upon the speed of the vessel and rate of turn during alteration of course.

As the turning of the ship is in form of an arc of a circle, there is another element that is involved: Radius of turn.

There is a relation between these three terms.

ROT = Speed of the ship/Radius of turn

But what the officer on watch need to know when altering the course?

They need to know at what position he should start altering the course and with what rate of turn should they alter the course.

We must keep in mind that this arc is a kind of our course during the course alteration process.

The arc would remain the same if the radius of turn would remain the same and we do not change that.

For this reason, we need to define the value for the radius of turn and keep this same once planned.

Usually, we keep the radius of turn of 1NM as constant.

Now with this, ROT becomes equal to the ship speed.

Wheelover-position-Radius

While passage planning on ECDIS, we need to define the value of the radius of turn and ship’s speed at each leg.

To do that, go to the route – > Route planning -> table editor and open the route you created for the voyage.

Under each waypoint, enter the value of “Turn Rad” and “speed”.

route-wheelover-position

This would create the arc for the alteration of course for each leg in the route.

But that is not enough. There is another element that we need to address.

Once we put the rudder on one side to turn the vessel, the vessel will take some time to start turning. We need to allow this while marking of the wheel over position.

This information is provided in the maneuvering booklet and is given in terms of “distance moved as the length of the ship before vessel start turning”.

It is generally between one to two lengths of the ship.

track_reach_LPP_wheelover_position

The wheel over position needs to be marked at a distance by that much from the start of the course alteration arc.

It may not be possible to measure that small distance but just make sure it is justifiable.

And to mark that we need to edit the same user chart that we have created for the voyage. We have already discussed about editing the user chart.

Here is how marking of the wheel over line would look like.

Wheel-over-line

Wheel over range and bearing

If there is a fixed object near the wheel over position from which radar bearing/range or visual bearing can be taken, we need to define the wheel over position with respect to bearing/range from this object.

Again, the marking of this line will be by editing the same user chart.

Then we need to draw a line from the fixed object to the wheel over position and measure the bearing and distance from wheel over position to this fixed object.

We can then edit the user chart further to write the text with information about bearing and distance.

wheel-over-with-bearing-and-range

6. Abort point and point of no return

I have written in length about “abort point and point of no return” in a different blog.

Read this blog if you wish to understand about the marking of abort point and point of no return.

Marking of abort point on ECDIS is not different than marking on paper chart except here again we will use the user chart option for marking instead of pencil.

abort-point-on-ECDIS-passage-plan

7. Position plotting interval

I have in written in length about “position fixing and position plotting interval” too.

Here is the link to that blog.

“Position fixing interval” is the maximum interval between two position fixes. So if in a particular section of the passage, we have agreed to the PFI of 01 hours, we must plot the ship’s position at least every hour.

During the passage planning, we need to decide the position plotting interval and methods.

This information needs to be provided at each leg of the route.

On ECDIS we just need to edit the same user chart to include the text about position plotting interval and methods at each leg.

8. Other information

Then there is other information that we need to write on the ECDIS. These include

  • Watch levels
  • Contingency anchorages
  • Security levels and hardening measures
  • Reporting requirements
  • Calling the master
  • The point at which notice to be given to Engine room

information-marking-on-ECDIS

Even though all this information are to be in text form but I will expand on these points in future blogs.

Conclusion

We have mastered the art of Passage planning on paper charts.

After all we had been doing this for decades.

However passage planning on ECDIS is comparatively a new thing and is evolving.

Conceptually this is no different from the passage planning on paper chart but we must understand the ECDIS specific elements to plan the passage on ECDIS.

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Capt Rajeev Jassal

About Capt Rajeev Jassal

Capt. Rajeev Jassal has sailed for over 20 years mainly on crude oil, product and chemical tankers. He holds MBA in shipping & Logistics degree from London. He has done extensive research on quantitatively measuring Safety culture onboard and safety climate ashore which he believes is the most important element for safer shipping.

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57 Comments

Alok Singh
Alok Singh
Mar 3, 2019

Sir,GPS positions are plotted for every minute on ecdis hence plotting intervals are normally not marked these days. In case you are referring to radar/visual fixes it needs to be highlighted.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Mar 6, 2019

Plotting interval is not only about plotting of ship's position on ECDIS, it is also about OOW checking if the ship is proceeding as planned. So even if the GPS position is being plotted automatically, PPI need to be mentioned.

RAHUL
RAHUL
Dec 14, 2020

Rajeev, that is just a bureaucracy for insurance houses... indeed... so OOW does not have other jobs other to plot the position? OOW is continuosly monitoring the vessel movement through water, this is just additional distract to reduce attention

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Ivan
Ivan
Mar 3, 2019

Great article sir! Nicely explained. One question sir, for position fixing is there a criteria for position fixing with regards to the distance of fixed objects observed visually or by radar? Or what is the maximum allowable distance for fixing position?

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Mar 6, 2019

For Visual, as far as eyes can clearly see and take bearing. As Radars are used effectively at 12NM range, the PI can be drawn from objects about 18NM (Considering Radar off center).

Earl Jasson
Earl Jasson
Mar 3, 2019

Very much appreciated your blogs sir. I hope many experienced seafarers will also impart their vast knowledge as these are very helpful to us, new seafarers! Two thumbs up!

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Mar 6, 2019

Thanks Earl...

Thirumalar Kannan
Thirumalar Kannan
Mar 4, 2019

Thank you so much for your great article. Also tell me wt is to be done when ecdis shows No overlay AIO for some area.

Jade
Jade
Jan 3, 2020

AIO is basically the computerized version of T&P notices and other navigational warnings, this is where the OOWs diligence in checking received EGC and navtex messages come in. When no AIO overlay is available, be sure to check all sources available for possible warnings and notices in the area, plot them accordingly, file and affix signature. It is the officer's responsibility to exhaust all approved references in keeping ENCs up to date.

Adrian Garip
Adrian Garip
Mar 4, 2019

Nice article. Regarding the PI topic: what you have plotted on ECDIS is not a PI; it is a kind of user symbol. A PI "travels" together with the vessel. There is the info necessary to set up the Radar display for the respective PI. About the No Go Area topic, the ENC provides sufficient info to inform the user (OOW) that there is an area you must avoid. We may observe the perimeter on chart. There is no need to additionally write "No go". We just need to "interogate" the chart; of course I agree we must write "no go" where the chart doesn't say that and we cannot go into that; for instance a draft restriction ( VLCC case). Very nice and useful article.

Hamidul Fattah
Hamidul Fattah
Mar 19, 2020

well said

Nicholas Stavroulakis
Nicholas Stavroulakis
Mar 8, 2019

Dear Captain, excellent article!! Many thanks.

Alex
Alex
Mar 13, 2019

Thx for the great topic! Only few things I would like to clarify: 1. On ECDIS JRC - Wheel Over Line it’s plotted automatically along the route, I mean, we can set turn 1 NM and it will draw. 2. Is it necessary to write to many “no go area “ ? Let’s say for safety contour, ECDIS gives OOW clear info the safe and unsafe water. Yes there are a lot of cases when we have to cross safety contour because of ENC producer/hydrographic office and yes we have to draw warning lines/area to mark our real safety contour which is usually our safety depth and when look ahead will “touch” it

RAHUL
RAHUL
Dec 14, 2020

More bullshit you make, more paper work u do, you are more safer in case of vetting... based on 16 yrs of experience

baldev Choudhary
baldev Choudhary
Mar 17, 2019

Sir , Your blogs are very useful onboard and ashore (exams) alike. Waiting for your new blogs as usual. Thanks a lot.

LIPIN.M.P
LIPIN.M.P
Mar 23, 2019

Excellent blog sir... This contract i was new to jrc ecdis... I have one query regarding PI on jrc ecdis... How can we monitor PI during our voyage on jrc ecdis... Since in model 901 B Jrc i couldnt find the PI lines available... But on on furuno we had option for that.. . So after drawing PI on usermap how can we monitor effectively when passing close to that object on jrc ecdis...

Tarun Kumar
Tarun Kumar
Jul 19, 2019

You do not use PI to monitor Position on an ECDIS. Just like paper charts, PI distances are marked on ECDIS as information to be used for position monitoring by Radar/ARPA.

Ramses
Ramses
Apr 3, 2019

Great article sir

Ramses
Ramses
Apr 3, 2019

Great article sir Could you show us also passage plan on Ecdis furuno fmd 3200?

Visveswaran
Visveswaran
May 31, 2019

hi sir , i do normally get 100s of errors on route check how to tackle the same.

OZAN TEKIN
OZAN TEKIN
Jun 29, 2019

Dear Capt Rajeev Jassal, First of all I appreciate with you kind consideration regarding this education articles. I have started to read all of them one by one with caution. Regarding this article as a Second officer who learnt navigation on ECDIS , I want to mention that we need to call 'Position Verification" rather than calling position intervals or fixing anymore. Due to real time navigation option of ECDIS we dont need to think or verify the current ship position continuously. Checking HDOP of GPS every 15 min while doing coastal navigation which can be supported by Radar fixes and PI's will be more than enough to clarify ships position.

Sayantan Bera
Sayantan Bera
Jul 16, 2019

Dear Sir , good question.

Mosarof Hossain
Mosarof Hossain
Jul 26, 2019

Dear Sir, thanks for the nice article in this wonderful website. One small thing I would like to mention though. Those sharing options (Fb, tweeter etc.) are overlapping the article and obstructing the view. Would you kindly relocate them?

Anil Kumar Singh
Anil Kumar Singh
Sep 27, 2019

Very insightful description. However, are the ECDIS units required t be independent of each other? If, so then position fixing and other changes have to be carried out on both separately which takes time and focus away from watchkeeping. If not, then tendency is, not to verify that the other unit is updated accordingly...Pls clarify......

jake
jake
Oct 8, 2019

we could cross safety contours provided we follow methods 1 or 2. it is the safety depth that we need to be wary of.

Akhil vikram singh
Akhil vikram singh
Mar 16, 2020

Dear sir Good day This blog is very help full for us thank-you so much sir . Kindly any one may send this blog in PDF on my email ID singh.Akhil627@gmail.com

Bogdan Manea
Bogdan Manea
Apr 21, 2020

Good article sir. Wheel over and turn radius should be taken more into consideration. People forget that they are not escorted by tugboats from port to port and sometimes create passage plans with ROT 40° by not editing turn radius or speed

Krishna
Krishna
Jul 12, 2020

why it is showing all the time Warning (UNACK:1) Cause: STW and the othere warning is Cause: Position(GPS1) not Differential

Krishna
Krishna
Jul 12, 2020

(1) Can anyone explain me step by step how to do the monthly back up of ecdis? (2) How to send the test message in SATCOM and also "RCC drill" format . Because when i am sending the test message in the ship email id it showing the status "Delivered" , but really i am not receiving any test message. say how i can solve this issue? please help

Allen Ray Pojas
Allen Ray Pojas
Sep 30, 2020

Thank you sir. Your blog is very informative and well delivered, also we share same type of ECDIS so it's been a great help. :D

Athanasia Andromanetsikou
Athanasia Andromanetsikou
Mar 12, 2021

I would like to ask if in the ECDIS can we calculate the great circle route ?

Sunny
Sunny
Jun 6, 2021

Dear sir i have some queries 1. What is arrival radius in Ecdis and how much we should keep? 2. Shall we keep XTL limits more or less...like for open sea We can keep 1 mile or 0.50 miles also, how to decide what we should keep?? 3. In ECDIS in rta format WOL is already marked but in route with file rtn, arrival radius is given ...so first explain which format we should use and why? And if we use rtn format where arrival radius is given so in that case we nees to mark WOL by user map???

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Jessica Smith
Jul 11, 2021

After being in relationship with Wilson for seven years,he broke up with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that don’t believed in spell, I had no choice than to try it, I meant a spell caster called Dr Zuma zuk and I email him, and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before three days, that my ex will return to me before three days, he cast the spell and surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there. Anybody could need the help of the spell caster, his email: spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com or WhatsApp him +15068001647 blog: spiritualherbal.blogspot.com you can email him if you need his assistance in your relationship or anything. CONTACT HIM NOW FOR SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PROBLEMS

james
james
Jul 13, 2021

good day sir! thanks to you better world has made on maritime! it is out of topic! but im so curious about the amended passage planing procedure. all passage plans are have been made berth to berth. what if modifications are made during the voyage? do i have to create all waypoints that already passed before? i think amended passage plan should be made from clsoest waypoint to berth. i cant find any instruction about this on B.P.G, B.T.M. etc... can you tell me where can i find details among the international rules or guidance

jessica stephen
jessica stephen
Jul 15, 2021

I am not sure I could have done it without you. I contacted a real spell caster that helped me change my husband’s heart to love and want me again, and he really did and now we are very happy together. My husband left me for another woman, This was just 3 years of our marriage. The most painful thing is that I was pregnant with our second baby. I wanted him back. I did everything within my reach to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so badly because of the love I had for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to my friend and she suggested that I should rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back , I had no choice than to try it. I messaged the spell caster called dr unity, and he assured me there was no problem and that everything will be okay before 11 hours. He cast the spell and surprisingly 11 hours later my husband called me. I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that had happened He wanted me to return to him. He also said he loved me so much. I was so happy and went to him that was how we started living together happily again.thanks to dr unity . if you are here and your Lover is turning you down, or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact Dr.Unity for help now.. Here his contact..WhatsApp him: +2348055361568 , Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com , Watch this YouTube channel to know how grateful I am https://youtube.com/shorts/rBPtBktMmtA?feature=share

Mrs. Santana Valdez
Mrs. Santana Valdez
Aug 3, 2021

i am giving this testimony cos l am happy My name is Mrs. Santana Valdez from Houston,taxes.i never believed in love spells or magic until i met this spell caster once. when i went to Canada in June 28th 2021 this year on a business summit. i meet a man called Dr Zuma zuk.He is powerful he could help you cast a spells to bring back my love's gone, misbehaving lover looking for some one to love you, bring back lost money and magic money spell or spell for a good job. i'm now happy & a living testimony cos the man i had wanted to marry left me 3 weeks before our wedding and my life was upside down cos our relationship has been on for 2 years. i really loved him, but his mother was against me and he had no good paying job. so when i met this spell caster, i told him what happened and explained the situation of things to him.. at first i was undecided, skeptical and doubtful, but i just gave it a try. and in 6 days when i returned to taxes, my boyfriend (is now my husband ) he called me by himself and came to me apologizing that everything had been settled with his mom and family and he got a new job interview so we should get married..i didn't believe it cos the spell caster only asked for my name and my boyfriends name and all i wanted him to do. well we are happily married now and we are expecting our little kid, and my husband also got a new job and our lives became much better. in case anyone needs the spell caster for some help, email address spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com Great Zuma zuk i thank you very much thank you in 1000000 times.. if not you i would have been losted and wasted thank you. Email Him Through his email address... spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com please make sure you contact him for any financial difficulties okay...What a powerful man such as Dr Zuma zuk.. he is so much powerful..\\ email him for any difficulties.. spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com His whatsapp +15068001647

Maria Alexzander
Maria Alexzander
Aug 4, 2021

Going through a divorce case is very heart broken when you love your partner with the whole of your heart.. My husband left me for a total stranger and I could not imagine what the hell was happening because everything looks like a dream to me. I was lost and confused about my life without any way to get a solution to make my husband see reasons with me that I love him so much. I was very depressed and desperate to win back my husband and I searched on GOOGLE for help about my situation and I got recommended to Dr. Ayoola who is a powerful spell caster for he has so many magnificent testimonies and reviews on the internet from different people all over the world. I got in touch with him and I poured out my sorrowful heart to him and he encouraged and promised to help me out. He gave me some instructions of which a adhered to and within 48 hours of contacting Dr. Ayoola my attorney called me to get me informed that the divorce case has been cancelled and I got a call from my husband 30 minutes after I finished speaking to my attorney. My husband and I are so much in Love with endless care and happiness and I so much thank Dr. Ayoola for doing this for me and I know people out there might also need their partner or lovers back or want to get pregnant for your partner or husband. So, you can Text & WhatsApp Dr. Ayoola on +31684065675 or email him via: ( drayoolasolutionhome@gmail.com ) for a change of story in your love life.. He is the best spell caster that can help you with your problems Or website https://drayoolasolutionhome.com/ OR YOU CAN MESSAGE HIM ON HIS FACEBOOK PAGE https://www.facebook.com/Dr-Ayoola-105640401516053/

Mary Nabeel
Mary Nabeel
Aug 18, 2021

i need a real spell caster to help me bring back my ex lover urgently 2021,whatsapp +1(661)525-4146 is the best spell caster online and his result is 100% guaranteed. My purpose out here today is to share this article to the world about how Dr. Tebe from the USA. Dr. Tebe helped me in getting back my EX-girlfriend that broke up with me 4 months ago. My name is Mary nabell from Cape Town, South Africa. I tried all I could to make her see reasons with me that we can continue our relationship but she neglected and turned down my decision. Thank God for giving me the thought of going into the internet for help, I searched properly and I saw different reviews of Dr. Tebe and I insisted on giving it a try by contacting him via whatsapp on +1 (661) 525–4146. He gave me reason to live again and he prepared a spell and told me that my Ex-boyfriend will come back to me within 48 hours. Can you believe it, my EX-girlfriend came back to me and our wedding will hold before the end of this year. Contact him now!!! if you need any help. Email: Drtebespelltemple@gmail.com or his website http://drtebespelltemplee.website2.me/

MICHEAL RACHEL
MICHEAL RACHEL
Aug 31, 2021

GOOD AND URGENT EFFECTIVE LOVE SPELL TO GET YOUR EX BACK FAST AND TO SAVE YOUR MARRIAGE NOW CONTACT DR.DAVID (AWESOME SPELL TEMPLE) ON EMAIL: AWESOMESPELLTEMPLE@GMAIL.COM WHATSAPP DIRECTLY +1(203)-533-9214... My name is MICHEAL RACHEL. When I read a testimony online on how DR DAVID the great and most powerful spell caster helped to bring back Divorce husband or wife EX LOVER. I was wondering how this can be true, Because many have failed me in the past without any result from them. I just let the post pass by and move on to the forum. To my notice again, Some person posted and said tested and trusted spell caster. After reading through the mail it was this same man DR DAVID she was talking about. So I have no other option than to really check up on how he works. I was totally devastated when my beloved husband left me. It was like my entire world vanishing into sorrow and pain. I know it sounds weird but out of all the spell casters I contacted, he was the only one to give me that impression of being so true and trustful. More than his words, He brought my husband back and he made all my wishes come true. He is now loyal, pays attention to me, he offers me flowers every Sunday, and we often go out at the cinema and the restaurant. My husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promised never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. My family is living together happily again.. I will be forever thankful for turning my life from hell to heaven! I believe those who need help should get to him for help. May God continue to use you to save broken relationships. To every one with marital problems, divorce issues, lost lovers or any relationship related issues, you can contact DR DAVID and wonder about the ultimate spell caster. contact him on his Email Address @ awesomespelltemple@gmail.com His Website:: http://awesomespelltemplem.website2.me his WhatsApp +1(203)-533-9214 https://awesomespelltemple.blogspot.com/

Olivia bolton
Olivia bolton
Sep 8, 2021

This testimony is worth sharing to the world. I am here to tell the world of the good works of Dr BALBOSA. My name is Olivia Bolton am from the UK.. My man left me and my kids for another older woman. It was not so easy for me.. I love my husband so much and I did not lose hope and I kept praying and God finally answered my prayers...i searched online for a spell caster to help me unite me and my lover back forever and i saw so many testimonies of how DR BALBOSA has helped so many people online and i decided to give him a trial … I contacted him and explained to him. He told me not to worry that he will bring back my man within 24 hours. He consulted his powers and assured me not to worry . He did his work and cast the spell and to my greatest surprise, my husband came back the same day begging and crying just as Dr BALBOSA said. He begged me for forgiveness and he promised never to leave me for any reason. We are happy and we live together as one. Contact Dr BALBOSA now and be happy forever. dont lose hope and good luck.. WHATSAPP AND CALL: +1(206) 485-3691 WEBSITE: https://balbosasolutionhome.com EMAIL: balbosasolutionhome@gmail.com

Ric Clayton
Ric Clayton
Sep 17, 2021

I really want to thank Dr Emu for saving my marriage. My wife really treated me badly and left home for almost 3 month this got me sick and confused. Then I told my friend about how my wife has changed towards me. Then she told me to contact Dr Emu that he will help me bring back my wife and change her back to a good woman. I never believed in all this but I gave it a try. Dr Emu casted a spell of return of love on her, and my wife came back home for forgiveness and today we are happy again. If you are going through any relationship stress or you want back your Ex or Divorce husband you can contact his whatsapp +2347012841542 or email emutemple@gmail.com

lilydawson
lilydawson
Sep 18, 2021

My husband and I were going through separation, after 9 years of marriage. I have seen it coming, due to his reaction towards me. And I was about losing my home, then I had to contact Dr Sunny, the love spell caster who cast powerful marriage blessings that reunited our marriage back together and also made our union stronger than as it were before. All thanks to Dr Sunny for reuniting my home back. We are living happily now. contact Dr Sunny for any marital problem's Thanks to you Dr Sunny. you can contact Dr Sunny via email {solutioncentre911@gmail.com} call or WhatsApp Dr Sunny mobile number +2349056393169

Chloe Elizabeth
Chloe Elizabeth
Sep 19, 2021

Hello my name is Chloe Elizabeth I'm from USA i want to testify of a great and powerful spell caster my husband left me and the kids for 2 weeks when i called him he didn't pick up when he came back home the 3rd week he told me he wanted a divorce i was so sad i cried all night he left again i was so lonely the next day i was searching for something online when i found a spell caster called Dr Osasu who have helped so many people with their problems so i contacted him with my problems he told me it will take 24hrs and my husband will be back to me i did every thing he told me to do and the next day my husband came back kneeling and begging he canceled the divorce we are now happy together Dr Osasu can help you too Email him at (drosasu25@gmail.com) WhatsApp +2347064365391

Chloe Elizabeth
Chloe Elizabeth
Sep 19, 2021

Hello my name is Chloe Elizabeth I'm from USA i want to testify of a great and powerful spell caster my husband left me and the kids for 2 weeks when i called him he didn't pick up when he came back home the 3rd week he told me he wanted a divorce i was so sad i cried all night he left again i was so lonely the next day i was searching for something online when i found a spell caster called Dr Osasu who have helped so many people with their problems so i contacted him with my problems he told me it will take 24hrs and my husband will be back to me i did every thing he told me to do and the next day my husband came back kneeling and begging he canceled the divorce we are now happy together Dr Osasu can help you too Email him at (drosasu25@gmail.com) WhatsApp +2347064365391

GARY CHARLY
GARY CHARLY
Sep 20, 2021

My wife is finally back with the help of Prophet Samuel after two years of separation this happen when I traveled to California for a contract wish I had,when I got there after a week we lose contact I try everything to contact her but I couldn't, so I decided not to bother myself anymore until I get home.After the contract I went home to meet my lovely wife, I discovered that she has packed all her belongings to another man's house, when I called her she told me she doesn't want me anymore that is over between us. I was hard broke because I really love her but thank God I came across a prophet email prophetsamuelspelltemple@gmail.com online, how he has helped people in solving their relationship. I contacted him for help and he helped me. Now my wife is back and we are happy together. Contact him for help if you need help now. Email : prophetsamuelspelltemple@gmail.com

Saba Chaudhry
Saba Chaudhry
Sep 23, 2021

HOW TO GET YOUR EX BACK WITHOUT PANIC I am Saba from San Francisco. I want to testify about the powerful Dr PATRICK for saving my relationship. I must be one of the few who don’t have any trouble showing and telling someone how grateful I am for making my relationship a melodious and smooth relationship. I have been trying to be more positive about my relationship with my boyfriend, it seems like it has taken forever. Another lady took my Fiancee away from me and they both relocated. I cried and searched for him to come back but he refused to take my calls nor return my messages. My friend introduced me to a powerful spell caster called Dr PATRICK who helped me cast a very powerful love spell that brought back my Fiance in 24hours. i was amazed and surprised when my fiance called to beg me for forgiveness all because of the powerful love spell of Dr PATRICK. don't fail to Contact Dr PATRICK through the following means if you have any Marital or Relationship problem. His contact information is Email: drpatrickspellcaster@gmail.com https://sabachaudhry1.blogspot.com/ Mobile Number: +1 662 493 2087 website: https://drpatrickspellcast.blogspot.com https://www.facebook.com/Drpatrickspellcaster11

Sophia Edward
Sophia Edward
Sep 24, 2021

Are you having issues in your relationship, Or finding it difficult to have a child of your own or are you the type having any diseases in your body. I will advise you to contact Dr. Perfect of ( Perfectlovetemple@gmail.com ).The potency of his spell is so effective and can reunite broken relationships and can also make one get pregnant no matter the situation and not only that, He also has the power to cure all types of diseases within the period of 48hours.Contact him today and thank me later. Contact details :; ( Perfectlovetemple@gmail.com ) //

michelle huff
michelle huff
15 hours ago

There is a great herbal man called Dr voodoo who can cure Hepatitis B virus and other deadly diseases with the use of natural herbs to cure Hepatitis B virus problems. He is from Africa and he is a great doctor and he can also cure you as well if you are have the problem And other deadly disease and here is email address voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com or Whatsapp +2348140120719 HERPES CURE,CANCER CURE,HIV/AIDS CURE,HPV CURE

Susan Hedstrom
Susan Hedstrom
1 hour ago

Life has not been easy with me after my marriage was broken when my husband filled for a divorced but I thank God for using LORD ZAKUZA who's like a God on Earth to get my broken marriage restored with his powerful spell. I suffered for depression for 6 months but today, I am so happy for getting to know LORD ZAKUZA for his spell has really made me to believe that of a truth spells are real and they work. I adhered to every bit of instructions given to me by LORD ZAKUZA for he promised me that he will make me happy and proud and really, all that happened and my husband came back to me begging me for forgiveness within 48 hours after I got in touch with him and now we are perfectly bonded again for life. I can boldly say to everyone out there that LORD ZAKUZA spells is really the best. I'm forever grateful to him till the end of time. So, you can get connected with him via his website: https://lordzakuzaspells.com or Email: lordzakuza7@gmail.com or WhatsApp +1 (740) 573-9483.

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