position fixing ship by bearing

Heavy traffic, extra Look out posted, hours of darkness. Suddenly the GPS is gone !!! Ever experienced this ?

Believe me when it happens, you start doubting each and every equipment. Even the ones which may be working fine at that moment.

Is the gyro giving correct heading ?  Is the echo sounder showing correct depth ? You will doubt everything !!! That’s not good.

You will loose the sense of direction. And you would have tiny amount of time to regain the sense and act in a way that is right.

The entire navigation depends upon knowing the position of the ship. This is one of the most important task of a navigator.

But when I say position, I do not only mean GPS position. There are many other ways of plotting the ship’s position. And as with the situation of GPS failing, we must be ready to switch to other methods of position fixing.

Before we proceed with discussing these methods, I must discuss a term which is so much a part of passage planning. The term is “position Fixing Interval”.

Position Fixing Interval

“Position fixing interval” is the maximum interval between two position fixes. So if in a particular section of the passage, we have agreed to the PFI of 01 hour, we must plot the ship’s position at least every hour.

But how do we decide the position fixing interval ?

For that just think why do we need to plot the position ? We plot position to be sure that we are on our track and not drifting towards a danger.

With that logic in mind, let us take an example.

I plot a position at 0800 Hrs. The agreed position fixing interval is 30 minutes. Now just after 0800 Hrs, the vessel starts to draft directly towards a danger.

Position fixing interval 30 minutes

I will only come to know about that at 0830 Hrs when I plot the next position of the ship. If at 0830 Hrs, vessel is at the danger then the PFI was set too high.Because before we could know that we are running into danger, we already were at the danger.

So even if vessel deviates from its course, the interval between two consecutive position fixes should be such that allows time to take the course corrective action.

Method of position Fixes

There are many methods by which we can get a fix of the ship’s position. Some of which are

  • Celestial fix by using sextant
  • Visual fix
  • Radar Fix
  • GPS
  • Echo sounder
  • Parallel Indexing

Primary method of position fixing

One of the element of passage planning is to identify the primary and secondary method of position fixing at each leg of the passage.

There should always be at least two method of position fixing.

Now at open sea, the primary method is GPS and secondary method would be “celestial fix”.

Preference for Primary method of Position FixingIf there is a radar conspicuous object, the primary method of position fixing becomes the “radar fix”. Secondary in this case would be GPS.

Now if that object is also visible, primary method becomes the “Visual fix”. In this case secondary method will be “Radar fix”.

The idea is that Visual fix gets the highest priority followed by radar fix. And radar fix gets the priority over GPS.

On tankers the vetting inspectors expects that if available visual and/or radar fixes must be plotted at least for the PFI.

For example let us say that the set PFI is 10 Minutes and the agreed position fixing method is Radar and Visual fix. Let us say we plot position at

  • 0900 Hrs: Radar or Visual Fix
  • 0910: Position by GPS
  • 0920: Radar or Visual Fix

This is considered to be wrong and would draw a vetting observation as the radar/visual position is plotted after 20 minutes where as PFI is 10 Minutes.

Celestial Fix using sextant

This method is not so popular during coastal navigation because of few reasons.

One because this method requires some time to know the position because of calculations involved.

Second because there are chances of user induced error (like error in taking the sight). That may not be so nice when ship is navigating in the proximity of dangers during coastal navigation.

But there is a gross misconception about this method among many seafarers. Misconception is that position by celestial observations are not accurate.

Instead, if we can have our hands set perfectly to take accurate sextant altitude, the position obtained by this method are quite accurate.

There are few disadvantages with this method.

Even though this method do not rely on electronic equipments and satellites but it need nature in our favour.

We need clear sky and clear horizon so that we can measure the altitude of the celestial body.

Even when the sky is clear, it is difficult to measure the sextant altitude when ship is rolling.

“How to use sextant to get the ship’s position” is too big a topic to fit in this post and I will write on that in detail on some other day.

Position by GPS fixes

Do I need to say anything about GPS fixes ? Even the supernumaries on board know how to plot GPS position.

This is most over relied method of position fixing. Over relied for a good reason. It is Crisp accurate (most of the time) and quick fix.

On Modern ECDIS, navigators do not need to do anything in plotting the GPS positions. These are plotted automatically at the set interval.

Some ECDIS can even record the ship’s position when it senses change in any parameters like change in course.

For the passage planning we must ensure that PFI is set in the ECDIS, so that GPS positions are marked and recorded automatically in the ECDIS.

To set the PFI in furuno ECDIS, go to DISP -> SET -> and then choose Symbol DISP.

Symbol display setting in Furuno ECDIS

Now go to Tracking. The Position fixing interval can be set under Labels. Once set, the GPS position will be recorded at the mentioned interval.

Position Fixing interval In ECDIS

GPS fixes are accurate, no doubt about that. The only issue with GPS fixes is the Complacency and over-reliance. Over-reliance to the extent that we may find ourself unconfortable if the GPS fails.

Radar Fixes

Position by radar gives quite accurate results and must be used whenever we have radar conspicuous objects.

The advantage with radar fixes is that it just needs one object to get the ship’s position. We can get the range and bearing of this object and plot the same on the chart.

For example let us say we get the bearing of this light as 050 degrees and range as 4.4 NM.

We will draw a line of 050 degrees to this light. We will then measure 4.4 NM on the compass and cut the bearing line with this distance.

radar fix by bearing and range

In the same way, if you have two objects, you can plot the radar fix by number of combinations of position lines like

  • bearings of these two objects
  • bearing of one object and range of other object
  • range of both objects

As more and more ships are moving to the paperless navigation, we must know how to fix the ship’s position by radar on ECDIS.

So let us fix the ship’s position on Furuno ECDIS.

Let us say for this island, we get a bearing of 010 Degrees and distance 2.5NM from the radar.

On Furuno ECDIS go to Record -> This will open a position event window. Choose LOP and then choose True-bearing + Distance option.

position event on ECDIS

Now click on the point of the island for which the bearing and distance were taken from the radar.

Now enter the bearing and distance in the position event window and then click “Add”.

Add position on Furuno ECDIS

This will give you your position.

plotting radar fix on ECDIS

Now if you wish to record this position in the memory of ECDIS, click “Record” in the position event window. The position will be plotted on ECDIS and recorded in the memory.

EP Fix by Radar on Furuno ECDIS

 

If we have two bearings (or two range) of two objects, the process of plotting radar fix on ECDIS is same as above. Just instead of “bearing + Distance”, choose “bearing” (or distance) option.

Visual Fixes

Visual fixes are least practiced position fixing method inspite of being accurate. All it requires is a visual target and compass for taking its bearing.

Position by Visual bearing of two objects

If we have two objects that are visible from the ship, the bearing of these two can get us the ship’s position.

For a better accuracy of position by two bearings, the two bearings should neither be too narrow nor too wide. Separation angle close to 45 degrees being the ideal one.

To plot the position by visual bearings of two objects, take the bearings of both the objects simultaneously.

Now draw the bearing of these objects on the charts. The point where these two bearings (position lines) intersect will be the ship’s position.

position by visual bearing

How to do this on ECDIS ?

The process is same what we did for plotting radar fix on ECDIS.

Position by Running Fix

Even when there is only one object visible for visual bearing, we can still get the position. The method is called “running fix”.

In this method, we take the first bearing of this object before when it is forward of our beam. Let us say we see a light Fl 5s 20m 16M. At 2000 Hrs we take its bearing and it comes out to be 020 degrees.

Plot it on the chart. This is the first position line at 2000 Hrs.

Take the second bearing of same object when it is abaft the beam. Say this time we take the bearing at 2020 and the bearing is 300 Degrees.

Plot it on chart. This is the position line at 2020 Hrs.

Running Fix

Now we have two position lines but both are at different times. We need to bring either of these position lines to the same time as the other one.

How do we do that ?

We know our course made good and speed, plot the this on the chart. Now on this course line cut the distance covered in 20 minutes which is the interval between two position lines. Let us name this point as point A.

Running fix 1

Now transfer your first position line to the point A. The point where it cuts the 2nd position line is the ship’s position at 2020 Hrs. This is because now both the position lines are at same time.

Running Fix 3

To get the position at 2000 Hrs, draw your course made good from the 2020 Hrs position. The point where it cuts the first position line will be the ship’s position at 2000 Hrs.

running fix position

 

How to get running fix plotted on ECDIS ? Let us plot this on furuno ECDIS.

We take the first bearing of the fixed object and we plot first position line on ECDIS. To do that from the left menu options go to Record -> Event log -> Posn event.

position event on Furuno ECDIS

This will show a pop up called position event.

position event option in Furuno ECDIS

Mark the first position line of the fixed object that you have taken the visual bearing from and click “add” to add the position line.

Running fix on ECDIS first position line

Now when you have the 2nd bearing of the same object, mark the 2nd bearing on the ECDIS in the same way. Make sure the option “transfer off” is slected while marking both the bearing.

Running fix on furuno ECDIS adding 2nd position line

 

So we have the two position lines but both are at different times. We need to transfer the 1st position to the present time to get a fix by “running fix” method.

To do that, choose the position line number 1 from the position event pop up (under LOP observations).

Then change the option to “Transfer to latest”.

Running Fix transfer to latest on Furuno ECDIS

Once we choose “transfer to latest” option for position line # 1, this position line will be transferred to the latest time. You will also see TPL marked on this position line which denotes “transferred position line”.

The position where it cuts the 2nd position line is the ship’s position.

Running fix on ECDIS transferred PL

 

The position where it cuts the 2nd position line is the ship’s position. To record this position in the history data of ECDIS, just click on “record” option in the “position event” pop up. This will mark the ship’s position on the ECDIS and save it in the history data.

position by running fix on ECDIS

Position by Echo Sounder

I am sure not many discuss this as the position fixing method. Rightly so. We have so many resources and we do not need to rely on echo sounder for position fixing.

But as I said, when the GPS fails we start doubting everything and each equipment. More methods of reassuring us about position can be handy.

Echo sounder cannot be used as a position fixing tool but it can be used to confirm the known position of the ship.

Have a look at this photo. This could be one of the place where we can ascertain our position by echo sounder.

position by echo sounder

If we see depth of around 40 meters on echo sounder and at the same time we take bearing of the edge of the island that is visible to us. We draw position line from this island.

As there is only one point on this position line where the depth is expected to be around 40 meters, this will be our estimated position.

Position fix by echo sounder

As I said this is not the position fixing method. But we can use this as a confirmation tool for the position we get from other methods.

Parallel Indexing

We earlier discussed that the interval between two position fixes should be such that between any two fixes, the vessel must be safe.

But this would mean that during arrival into a port, we need to plot our position every 60 seconds.

Many, including some third party inspectors may insist on this but this is crazy. Imagine plotting the radar fixes every two minutes.

Sometimes even the chart would not be of such large scale that can distinguish the two positions plotted at two minutes interval.

I feel PFI of less than 5 minutes is not practical. So how do we ensure ship does not run into danger if PFI need to be less than 5 minutes and we plot the position every 5 minutes ?

The answer is by “parallel indexing”.

We identify a fixed object and draw a line parallel to our course. We then monitor the echo of this object on the radar.

Parallel Indexing techniques

If the echo stays on the line drawn parallel to the course, we are on our course. If the echo deviates from the line, we are off track and we must alter the course to bring the vessel on track.

This is a method which ensures continuous monitoring of the ship’s position.

In the situations where PFI comes out to be less than 5 minutes, we can set the PFI as 5 minutes and then monitor the ship’s position by parallel indexing and plotting the position every 5 minutes.

Parallel indexing is a fantastic tool for monitoring the ship’s position. For this reason, it must be used wherever a radar conspicuous object or landmark is available.

Conclusion

There is one basic requirement that a navigating officer on watch need to fulfil. At all times he must know

  • Where we are, and
  • Where they (other targets) are

Sadly most of the groundings happens because we either do not know one of these or both. If we know all the methods of plotting and then confirming our position, we will never miss out where we are.

With now more and more ships going paperless, we must also transform ourself to be able to use these methods on ECDIS.

Related Blogs

Follow us Today on
our social network

Capt Rajeev Jassal

About Capt Rajeev Jassal

Capt. Rajeev Jassal has sailed for over 19 years mainly on crude oil, product and chemical tankers. He holds MBA in shipping & Logistics degree from London. He has done extensive research on quantitatively measuring Safety culture onboard and safety climate ashore which he believes is the most important element for safer shipping.

Search Blog

68 Comments

Sujay
Sujay
May 7, 2017

Krishna Patel
Krishna Patel
May 7, 2017

A very good effort sir. Very crisp and simple to understand.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
May 15, 2017

Thank you Krishna..

Marc
Marc
Jan 8, 2018

For what? Flat earth or undependable thousand of satellites that cant give GPS. Flat maths sure help to calculate :)

Kenneth Carl
Kenneth Carl
Apr 12, 2018

thank you for this sir, how about plotting celestial observation in furuno ECDIS?

V.B.Kripalani
V.B.Kripalani
May 7, 2017

An excellent and understable way prsented.You must be in teaching business. Please meet another old teacher.Do keep in touch.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
May 15, 2017

Thank you Sir. No, I am not into teaching. I am just trying to give the salt back to sea..

Raman Kumar jha
Raman Kumar jha
May 14, 2017

Dear Sir, very good morning !!! Thanks for easily explain and very useful. Regards, Raman

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
May 15, 2017

Glad you found it useful Raman..

Vijay Thapa
Vijay Thapa
Jul 5, 2017

Sir, Excellent effort ....for made simply understand..Thank you very much, Sir.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Nov 17, 2017

Glad you found it useful Vijay...

Ngo Tan Thai Duong
Ngo Tan Thai Duong
Jul 13, 2017

Dear sir, I would like to ask you that if you have time, can you write a post about the radar techniques in using to manouever the ship during the coastal navigation. I really like it and as I know the ability of the 2nd mate will be identified through his using radar technique. Thanks in advance.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Nov 17, 2017

I will write on this topic in near future...

Peter
Peter
Dec 6, 2017

Many thanks Capt. Rajeev, excellent piece. Allow me a question please. VIQ states that parallel indexing should not be used with floating objects, but what about clearing bearings? I see that many navigators use Clearing Bearings with buoys. Is that acceptable?

Clint
Clint
Jan 25, 2018

Awesome!

siddharth
siddharth
Feb 14, 2018

do we need to put pfi intervals on ecdis chart as well as it is being done by the use of gps labels on ecdis? For instance i am getting time label of 10 mins each on my ecdis track and hence i am monitoring my position continuously still do i need to put pfi interval on user map?

Dhairya joshi
Dhairya joshi
Feb 26, 2018

Sir can we plot radar bearings directly to chart?

PARK JANG KYU
PARK JANG KYU
Jun 21, 2018

Dear Capt. Rajeev Jassal

Kenneth
Kenneth
Sep 4, 2018

Hi, how do we input celestial observation or position in the ECDIS?

CAPTAIN GILBERT LEE
CAPTAIN GILBERT LEE
Dec 7, 2018

good stuff. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLafMfVypK6pOlSQ8ukxo_MXEb2pWxCDZO

Captain Gilbert Lee
Captain Gilbert Lee
Dec 7, 2018

good stuff. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLafMfVypK6pOlSQ8ukxo_MXEb2pWxCDZO

TONY
TONY
Mar 5, 2019

how would i find out position plotting interval for a leg?

JUNIMAR
JUNIMAR
Mar 9, 2020

In open sea, position fixing interval is 1 hour. In coastal waters (when vsl is within 12 NM from shore), for ELECTRONIC CHARTS at interval of not more than 30 minutes with cross checks in between. For PAPER CHARTS, GPS positions to be verified by using simple formula for identifying PFI in coastal water: PFI= 1/2(D) ÷ (V/60), where D is the nearest distance of the shore or obstruction along your LEG and V is the vessel SPEED or planned speed of your passage.

Moh
Moh
Mar 26, 2019

Please in my deck logbook there is method to get position by obs or ac'nt Please can you explain what is the meaning of ac'nt

Dhananjay
Dhananjay
Jul 11, 2019

Pls ezplain about lop in ecdis

Ferobe
Ferobe
Jul 9, 2020

Thank you for sharing your knowledge

Mayank
Mayank
Jul 22, 2020

One thing I have noticed you have skipped the celestial fix plotting on ECDIS , would appreciate if you can explain how celestial fix was plotted on paper chart and how to do the same on an ECDIS ,so that we can co relate e.g. Longitude by Chronometer, Mer-Pass and Intercept . All 3 methods . I am using Transas Navisailor 4000 and I have no clue about it.

Shubham
Shubham
Aug 12, 2020

Can i take the fix using a bouy? If yes then which buoy?

pawan kumar
pawan kumar
Sep 1, 2020

Hello sir can you please tell the position plotting interval in ecdis

Alok Ranjan
Alok Ranjan
Nov 26, 2020

Thank you very much capt sir for ur efforts, it's really simple to understand .

Myo Min Htet
Myo Min Htet
Dec 6, 2020

Very appreciate for sharing your precious knowledge not only present post but also all post from MySeaTime blog. Most of comfuse things are clear after I read your post. Thank you sir.

Alan
Alan
Jan 2, 2021

Sir can you pls fiil in some more info on the use of eho sounder and logs when used as a means of position fixing

Nad Rosero
Nad Rosero
Jan 15, 2021

Dear sir, Thanks for sharing this knowledgeble information, one of the best idea that I/we must be learned as a seafarer. ????

Harshit
Harshit
Jan 28, 2021

Can someone advise can we plot position using light buoy??? If we can in which manual is it written??

Harshit
Harshit
Jan 28, 2021

In my previous comment I want to mention light vessel instead of light buoy..

MD. RABIUL HOSSAIN
MD. RABIUL HOSSAIN
Apr 6, 2021

It is very easy and full of information that you are provided on each topics, which is very helpful for COC exam as well as for practical sea life. Tks indeed.

NEOFYTOS ADAKTYLOS
NEOFYTOS ADAKTYLOS
Apr 8, 2021

What about DR fixes?

Edward  Dillinger
Edward Dillinger
Apr 30, 2021

I am so happy investing with TD Ameritrade.. He has really helped after I lost my job. I started investing as little as $200 and now I earn over $2,500 weekly. So happy you can contact him on his Email: tdameritrade077@gmail.com Via whatsapp: (+12166263236)

Levi Armstrong
Levi Armstrong
May 19, 2021

It's great that you mentioned that GPS fixes help automatically fix intervals and record the boat's position and not be over-reliant on it. My dad and brother are going on a fishing trip this weekend to the sea. I'll share this with them later. Thanks! https://wharf-marine-sales.myshopify.com/products/garmin-gpsmap-743-chartplotter-preloaded-us-canada-bahamas-bluechart-g3-lakev-g3-010-02365-01?_pos=1&_sid=581275453&_ss=r

micheal pan
micheal pan
Jun 22, 2021

BE SMART AND BECOME RICH IN LESS THAN 3DAYS....It all depends on how fast  you can be to get the new PROGRAMMED blank ATM card that is capable of hacking into any ATM machine,anywhere in the world. I got to know about  this BLANK ATM CARD when I was searching for job online about a month  ago..It has really changed my life for good and now I can say I'm rich and  I can never be poor again. The least money I get in a day with it is about  $50,000.(fifty thousand USD) Every now and then I keeping pumping money  into my account. Though is illegal,there is no risk of being caught  ,because it has been programmed in such a way that it is not traceable,it  also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTVs to detect  you..For details on how to get yours today, email the hackers on : ( atmmachinehackers1@gmail.com ). Tell your  loved once too, and start to live large. That's the simple testimony of how  my life changed for good...Love you all ...the email address again is ; atmmachinehackers1@gmail.com

KETINA BARLEY
KETINA BARLEY
Jun 28, 2021

I want to say thanks once again to this great man called Dr Zuma and his spiritual way of helping people i lives in USA with my husband we love each other and also he care about me always look forward to make things easy for both of us 9 years after our wedding, we both work harder to make a family greatest surprise, we have a kid after some times again, we have another one so with this, we live in peace and he was so honest to me shortly, he started misbehaving that i don’t know what is going on then i asked him. Darling what is going on? you are so strange to me this few days hope i have not offended you? he said no. Not knowing he have an affair with one lady out side who promised him a car and apartment in one estate were i cannot see him also when he cannot see me i manage to stay with him pleading him he should forgive me if i have wrong him he started complaining he has no money that he has lost all his money in his business that he needs some money then i asked him how much is this money you are looking for? he did not know i can afford it. Then, he said $14,000USD i promised him i we give it to him just for him to care about his family. My greatest surprise, the next day, i went to work and our two kids were in school not knowing his going to leave the house before i come’s back i met some of his things outside i was waiting for him to come back he never come back i cried i miss him so much and he have taking all my money away i was only left with $800USD. One day, as i was ready a blog i saw a testifier made by someone in Australia called Jessica telling people about how this man call Dr Zuma helped her and the man’s contact email was there and his mobile number then i contacted him for a help and really, he brought back my husband now am so happy my brothers and sister if you are in such relationship problem kindly via Email spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com or Whatsapp +15068001647 Blog: https://spiritualherbal.blogspot.com he will help you solve all your problems.

ANEESH
ANEESH
Jul 1, 2021

Thank You Very Much Sir. Very nicely explained all aspects of position fixing.

Jessica Smith
Jessica Smith
Jul 13, 2021

After being in relationship with Wilson for seven years,he broke up with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that don’t believed in spell, I had no choice than to try it, I meant a spell caster called Dr Zuma zuk and I email him, and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before three days, that my ex will return to me before three days, he cast the spell and surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there. Anybody could need the help of the spell caster, his email: spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com or WhatsApp him +15068001647 blog: spiritualherbal.blogspot.com you can email him if you need his assistance in your relationship or anything. CONTACT HIM NOW FOR SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PROBLEMS

DANA JERRY
DANA JERRY
Jul 20, 2021

I was searching for loan to sort out my bills& debts, then i saw comments about Blank ATM Credit Card that can be hacked to withdraw money from any ATM machines around you . I doubted thus but decided to give it a try by contacting {Blankatmoffice@gmail.com} they responded with their guidelines on how the card works. I was assured that the card can withdraw $5,000 instant per day & was credited with $50,000.00 so i requested for one & paid the delivery fee to obtain the card, after 24 hours later, i was shock to see the UPS agent in my resident with a parcel{card} i signed and went back inside and confirmed the card work's after the agent left. This is no doubts because i have the card & has made used of the card. This hackers are USA based hackers set out to help people with financial freedom!! Contact these email if you wants to get rich with this Via: Blankatmoffice@gmail.com... WESTERN UNION HACK/ MONEY GRAM HACK 2) BITCOIN INVESTMENTS HACK 3) BANKS TRANSFERS 4) CRYPTOCURRENCY MINING 5) BANKS LOGINS 6) LOADING OF ACCOUNTS 7) WALMART TRANSFERS 8) BUYING OF GIFT CARDS 9) REMOVING OF NAME FROM DEBIT RECORD AND CRIMINAL RECORD 10) BANK HACKING 11) PAYPAL LOADING 12) CASH-APP FLIP •

Gary
Gary
Jul 26, 2021

I'm here to testify about Mr. John Blank ATM Cards which can withdraw money from any ATM around the world.. firstly I thought it was a scam until I saw so many testimonies about how Mr. John sent them the ATM blank card and how it was used to withdraw money in any ATM and become rich so I decided to risk the opportunity I contacted him also and I applied for the Blank Card to my greatest surprise I have used it to get 10,000 dollars. maximum withdrawal daily $1,000, Mr. John is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any ATM Machine Vault, If you are interested kindly contact him directly on his email (johnlopez1945@gmail.com)

Mrs. Santana Valdez
Mrs. Santana Valdez
Aug 3, 2021

i am giving this testimony cos l am happy My name is Mrs. Santana Valdez from Houston,taxes.i never believed in love spells or magic until i met this spell caster once. when i went to Canada in June 28th 2021 this year on a business summit. i meet a man called Dr Zuma zuk.He is powerful he could help you cast a spells to bring back my love's gone, misbehaving lover looking for some one to love you, bring back lost money and magic money spell or spell for a good job. i'm now happy & a living testimony cos the man i had wanted to marry left me 3 weeks before our wedding and my life was upside down cos our relationship has been on for 2 years. i really loved him, but his mother was against me and he had no good paying job. so when i met this spell caster, i told him what happened and explained the situation of things to him.. at first i was undecided, skeptical and doubtful, but i just gave it a try. and in 6 days when i returned to taxes, my boyfriend (is now my husband ) he called me by himself and came to me apologizing that everything had been settled with his mom and family and he got a new job interview so we should get married..i didn't believe it cos the spell caster only asked for my name and my boyfriends name and all i wanted him to do. well we are happily married now and we are expecting our little kid, and my husband also got a new job and our lives became much better. in case anyone needs the spell caster for some help, email address spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com Great Zuma zuk i thank you very much thank you in 1000000 times.. if not you i would have been losted and wasted thank you. Email Him Through his email address... spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com please make sure you contact him for any financial difficulties okay...What a powerful man such as Dr Zuma zuk.. he is so much powerful..\\ email him for any difficulties.. spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com His whatsapp +15068001647

perez turner
perez turner
Aug 3, 2021

GET RICH WITH THE USE OF BLANK ATM CARD FROM (besthackersworld58@gmail.com) Has anyone here heard about blank ATM card? An ATM card that allows you to withdraw cash from any Atm machine in the world. No name required, no address required and no bank account required. The Atm card is already programmed to dispense cash from any Atm machine worldwide. I heard about this Atm card online but at first i didn't pay attention to it because everything seems too good to be true, but i was convinced & shocked when my friend at my place of work got the card from guarantee Atm card vendor. We both went to the ATM machine center and confirmed it really works, without delay i gave it a go. Ever since then I’ve been withdrawing $1,500 to $5000 daily from the blank ATM card & this card has really changed my life financially. I just bought an expensive car and am planning to get a house. For those interested in making quick money should contact them on: Email address : besthackersworld58@gmail.com or WhatsApp him on +1(323)-723-2568

John Tim
John Tim
Aug 10, 2021

Genuine provider for BG/SBLC specifically for lease, at leasing price of 4+2 of face value, Issuance by HSBC London/Hong Kong or any other AA rated Bank in Europe, Middle East or USA. Contact : Mr. EASON RONNIE Email: easonronnie9@gmail.com skype : keatcheng2@gmail.com Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved. All inquires to Mr. Eason should include the following minimum information so I can quickly address your needs: Complete contact information: What exactly do you need? How long do you need it for? Are you a principal borrower or a broker? Contact me for more details. Whatsapp: +19893413179

Paul Regan
Paul Regan
Aug 11, 2021

Fake Driving Licence UK Welcome to Novelty DMV Experts Best Producers of High Undetected Drivers License . We produce two types of documents qualities. 
We have the Real registered Fake birth Drivers License and good quality Fake Driver License for USA , UK , Canada which is unregistered.
With the Drivers License , all your biometric details as given from birth or any of your choice will be registered under the DMV or DVLA database system that can be verify from any other country with no problems involved, meanwhile with the camouflage quality Fake drivers License , non of your biometric details will be under the government system, but it can not be detected as fake with naked eyes, except with the use of machines. Visit our website on noveltydmvexperts.com you can contact us via Whatsapp +1(408) 872-5899 or Wickr ..... Octapustickets for fast response on how it works with your desired type. Thanks and waiting to Hear from you soon

wizard william
wizard william
Aug 14, 2021

I want to testify about Dark Web blank atm cards which can withdraw money from any atm machine around the world. I was very poor before and have no job. I saw so many testimonies about how Dark Web hackers send them the atm blank card and use it to collect money in any atm machine and become rich. ( wizardwilliammitnickquick23@gmail.com ) I email them also and they sent me the blank atm card. I have used it to get 90,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of 5,000 USD daily. Dark Web is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any atm machine vault with the use of atm programmed card which runs in automatic mode. Email: wizardwilliammitnickquick23@gmail.com.net or text him on WhatsApp +1 (559) 851-5537 he is very trustworthy.

Tessy
Tessy
Aug 17, 2021

We all know how it feels to lose a savings to the wrong investment company, well maybe at least those of us reading this can relate. It can be heart breaking and depressing, but thanks to the help of technology. We at Secure2invest are a team of high intellectuals with a basic aim to recover back scammed crypto from fake investment company, fake binary option, and like. You have nothing to worry about because Secure2invest.com has got the right tools and tech for a perfect recovery process considered you have the required informations needed for the recovery. Contact us now by visiting our website @ Secure2invest.com and let recover your lost crypto.

blank atm card
blank atm card
Aug 31, 2021

HAVE YOU BEEN IN SEARCH FOR GENUINE HACKER'S ONLINE?. HAVE YOU LOST YOUR MONEY TO BINARY OPTION SCAM OR ANY ONLINE SCAM WHATSOEVER?. WELL, YOU HAVE FOUND REDEMPTION . BLANK ATM CARD :We have specially programmed BLANK ATM CARDS that can be used to hack any ATM machine, these ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe, stores and outlets. We sell this BLANK CARDS to all our customers and interested buyers worldwide, the BLANK CARDS has a daily withdrawal limit of $5000 in ATM and up to $50,000 spending limit in stores. and also if you are in need of any other cyber hacking services, we are here for you at any time any day. Email : Email:Creditcards.atm@gmail.com WhatsApp: +1(539) 888-2243 -hack into any kind of phone _Increase Credit Scores _western union, bitcoin and money gram hacking _criminal records deletion _BLANK ATM/CREDIT CARDS _Hacking of phones(that of your spouse, boss, friends, and see whatever is being discussed behind your back) _Security system hacking...and so much more. Contact THEM now and get whatever you want at Email:Creditcards.atm@gmail.com WhatsApp: +1(539) 888-2243 You can also contact us on Telegram. ????????????????????✔????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

Louis  Vincent
Louis Vincent
Sep 1, 2021

Hello everyone, Do you need hacking services? please contact= schwartzsoftwarehackingprogram@gmail.com, WhatsApp : (+44- /744-82 ) 9-0030 ;) Be warned, most of these hackers called here are imposters, I know how real hackers work, they never advertise in such a gullible way and they are always discreet. I was tricked so many times out of desperation trying to find urgent help to change my grades from school, finally, my friend introduced me to a group of trusted hackers who work with discretion and delivery promptly, they do all sorts of hacking that you be shocked to believe +Database Hacking, +Spying and monitoring of any device +School grade hack, +Company records and systems, +Bank Account Hacks, +Clearing of Criminal records of diverse types, +VPN Software, +Monitoring of GPS locations, +Bank transfer, Western Union, Money Gram, Credit Card transfer, +Bank Account Hacks, +Credit score increase +University Grades Hack, +Any social media platform hack, +Retrieval of lost documents +Facebook Hacking Tricks, +Email hack: Gmail, AOL, Yahoo mails, Proton-mail, etc., +Mobile phone (call and text message Hacking are available also) +ATM hack, +Retrieval of lost documents, etc. Contact them at= schwartzsoftwarehackingprogram@gmail.com Contact them at WhatsApp =(+44- /744-82 ) 9-0030 ;)

perez turner
perez turner
Sep 9, 2021

I am Perez Turner from Australia , i want to thank Mr Luis Donald for the help he rendered me with the Blank Atm Card that save my life and my family , i lost my job last year during Corona Virus and ever since then it has been very difficult to take care of my family and pay other bills,while hunting for job online i came across one Lady testimony about Mr Luis Donald Blank Atm Card that help her with capital money to start up a business , at first i was scared to contact him because of the trending news about scams, i told my wife about it and she told me to take the risk and i contacted Mr Luis Donald for the card ,after 2-3 days i received the card from him and follows his instruction on how to used the card ,am so happy today to share this because I have use it to get 45,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of 3,500 USD daily. Luis Donald is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any atm machine vault with the use of atm programmed card which runs in automatic mode.hurry now and contact him on how to get yours.Email: besthackersworld58@gmail.com Text & Call or WhatsApp:+1(475)-701-0611

harrisonblankatmcard
harrisonblankatmcard
Sep 22, 2021

● Hello, we are offering service for Online CC /w High Balance which is ATM Card. You can use it anywhere in the world to withdraw money from any ATM machine. Contact us with the following email address: harrisonblankatmcard@gmail.com -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  -- -- --------------What are the list, cost and how do i purchase the card?  Contact us on: Email: harrisonblankatmcard@gmail.com ★  How it works? Our cards are loaded with balance of $5,000 to $100,000 with different daily withdraw limit depending on the card you are ordering and you can use the ATM card to withdraw cash anywhere.  ★  Is this real? Yes, as shown in the video, we withdraw cash multiple times without any issues. You can do it too.  ★  Can i be traced? No, your withdraw/transactions are completely anonymous.  ★  Is this legal? We'll leave that for you to asnwer but we have not had any issues when doing this method. ★  Are people using this? Absolutely, people have quit most of their hard jobs to withdraw money instantly. Men and women use this card but we dont deal with kids or anyone below 18yrs ★  How do I get my card? We will ship your card with Pin 2 hours after receiving clear payment from you and the card will be send to you through courier delivery services. Our package usually delivered within 2-3 business day. Once you receive the card you can start cashing out.  ★   Are you guys for real? YES: we are 100% real and been doing this since 2015 and once you withdraw with our card please do drop a comment right here for other people to see we are being serious here. -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --                EMAIL US AT: harrisonblankatmcard@gmail.com or WhatsApp +15593840001

bahaa gad abd elmaksoud
bahaa gad abd elmaksoud
Sep 29, 2021

Thanks alot for your time and efforts Really perfect

Stefan Miller
Stefan Miller
Oct 1, 2021

After I got married, my wife and I took our honeymoon in Argentina, as part of my checklist I set up all my bills on auto-pay — or so I thought. We spent some Quality time together when we got back. One of the credit cards that I assumed was on auto-pay turned out to go unpaid for two months. As a result, my credit score was damaged for years. After this experience, a friend of mine recommended 760PLUS CREDIT SCORE, I contacted them on 760pluscreditscore@gmail.com /304 774 5902 and we had a deal after I made an upfront payment, we started and he got my credit fixed within 12 days, I owe them some cool recommendation, confidently contact them for Excellent Fix.

victoria wilson
victoria wilson
Oct 1, 2021

BE SMART AND BECOME RICH IN LESS THAN 3 DAYS....It all depends on how fast you can get the new PROGRAMMED blank ATM card that is capable of hacking into any ATM machine, anywhere in the world. I got to know about this BLANK ATM CARD when I was searching  for  job online about a month ago.. It has really changed my life for good and now I can say I'm rich and I can never be poor again. The least money I get in a month  it is about $500,000. USD. Everyday I keep pumping money into my account. Though it is illegal, there is no risk of being caught, because it has been programmed in such a way that it is not traceable, it also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTV's to detect you.. For details on how to get yours today,email the hackers on: harrisonblankatmcard@gmail.com Tell your loved ones too, and start to live large. That's the simple testimony of how my life changed for good... Love you all... his Whatsapp +15593840001.

Charles Wells
Charles Wells
Oct 1, 2021

I know of a group of private investigators who can help you with they are also hackers but prefer to be called private investigators They can help with your bitcoin issues and your clients will be happy doing business with you,they can also help yo with your bad credit score,hacking into phones,binary recovery,wiping criminal records,increase school score, stolen files in your office or school,blank atm etc. Just name it and you will live a better life whatsapp +1 (984) 733-3673 telegram +1 (984) 733-3673 Premiumhackservices@gmail.com

victoria wilson
victoria wilson
Oct 2, 2021

BE SMART AND BECOME RICH IN LESS THAN 3 DAYS....It all depends on how fast you can get the new PROGRAMMED blank ATM card that is capable of hacking into any ATM machine, anywhere in the world. I got to know about this BLANK ATM CARD when I was searching  for  job online about a month ago.. It has really changed my life for good and now I can say I'm rich and I can never be poor again. The least money I get in a month  it is about $500,000. USD. Everyday I keep pumping money into my account. Though it is illegal, there is no risk of being caught, because it has been programmed in such a way that it is not traceable, it also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTV's to detect you.. For details on how to get yours today,email the hackers on: harrisonblankatmcard@gmail.com Tell your loved ones too, and start to live large. That's the simple testimony of how my life changed for good... Love you all... his Whatsapp +15593840001.

samuel bricks
samuel bricks
Oct 3, 2021

i was lost with no hope for my wife was cheating and had always got away with it because i did not know how or always too scared to pin anything on her. with the help a friend who recommended me to who help hack her phone, email, chat, sms and expose her for a cheater she is. I just want to say a big thank you to HACKINTECHNOLOGY@GMAIL.COM . am sure someone out there is looking for how to solve his relationship problems, you can also contact him for all sorts of hacking job..he is fast and reliable. you could also text +1 410 635 0697 text/ whatsapp and telegram

bella patos
bella patos
Oct 6, 2021

HAVE YOU BEEN IN SEARCH FOR GENUINE HACKER'S ONLINE?. ARE YOU LOOKING FOR A WAY TO GET BLANK ATM CARD HERE IS YOUR OPPORTUNITY NOW BLANK ATM CARD :We have specially programmed BLANK ATM CARDS that can be used to hack any ATM machine, these ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe, stores and outlets. We sell this BLANK CARDS to all our customers and interested buyers worldwide, the BLANK CARDS has a daily withdrawal limit of $5000 in ATM and up to $50,000 spending limit in stores. and also if you are in need of any other cyber hacking services, we are here for you at any time any day. Email : Email:officialhackingcompany@gmail.com -hack into any kind of phone _Increase Credit Scores _western union, bitcoin and money gram hacking _criminal records deletion _BLANK ATM/CREDIT CARDS _Hacking of phones(that of your spouse, boss, friends, and see whatever is being discussed behind your back) _Security system hacking...and so much more. Contact THEM now and get whatever you want at Email:officialhackingcompany@gmail.com Visit wesbite:https://officialhackingcom.wixsite.com/official

edith rose
edith rose
Oct 8, 2021

I am Edith Rose  from Usa,  i want to thank Mr harrison for the help he rendered me with the Blank Atm Card that save my life and my family , i lost my job last year during covid and ever since then it has been very difficult to take care of my family and pay other bills,while hunting for job online i came across one Lady testimony about Mr harrison Blank Atm Card that help her with capital money to start up a business , at first i was scared to contact him because of the trending news about scams, i told my Husband about it and he told me to take the risk and i contacted Mr harrison for the card ,after 3-4 days i received the card from him and follows his instruction on how to used the card, am so happy today to share this because I have use it to get 45,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of $2000 USD daily. Harrison is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any atm machine vault with the use of atm programmed card which runs in automatic mode.hurry now and contact him on how to get yours. Email: harrisonblankatmcard@gmail.com or Whatsapp him +15593840001

Grace Allday
Grace Allday
Oct 8, 2021

I was searching for loan to sort out my bills& debts, then i saw comments about Blank ATM Credit Card that can be hacked to withdraw money from any ATM machines around you. I doubted this but decided to give it a try by contacting {professional.hacker55@yahoo.com} they responded with their guidelines on how the card works. I was assured that the card can withdraw $5,000 instant per day & was credited with$50,000,000.00 so i requested for one & paid the delivery fee to obtain the card, after 24 hours later, i was shock to see the UPS agent in my resident with a parcel{card} i signed and went back inside and confirmed the card work's after the agent left. This is no doubts because i have the card & has made used of the card. This hackers are USA based hackers set out to help people with financial freedom!! Contact these email if you wants to get rich with this Via: professional.hacker55@yahoo.com

Haily Bradwell
Haily Bradwell
Oct 11, 2021

HAVE YOU LOST YOUR MONEY TO BINARY OPTION SCAM OR ANY ONLINE SCAM WHATSOEVER?.DO YOUR DESIRE CREDIT REPAIR[EQUIFAX, EXPERIAN, TRANSUNION? WELL, YOU HAVE FOUND REDEMPTION IN ASORE CORP. asorehackcorp@gmail.com Asore Corp is a group of multinational Hacker's, an affiliate of Evil Corp. We make sure by all means necessary that our clients get the best of services on a????PAYMENT AFTER JOB IS DONE BASIS✅. Rather than send money and trust a criminal to fulfill your deal, you can make sure the job is done before WORKMANSHIP is paid for. You'll get excellent customer service. That's a 100% guarantee. Our Cyber security Technicians are on standby 24/7 to receive your job requests. ⚠️ BEWARE OF FRAUDSTARS looking to hoax. if you have been a VICTIM, contact : ✉️cyberprecinct@gmail.com for directives. Here, it's always a win for you. ????OUR SERVICES???? ➡️Binary Option funds recovery ➡️Social media hack ➡️Recovery of loan scam ➡️Credit repair (Equifax,Experian,Transunion) ➡️E mail hack ➡️College score upgrade ➡️Android & iPhone Hack ➡️Website design ➡️Website hack And lots more. DISCLAIMER: Asore Cyber Corp accepts no responsibility for any information,previously given to anybody by clients on as regarding the job. Asore Cyber Corp will not distribute contact information collected on any hacking job other than in the Asore corps Hacker's listings themselves, and will not sell contact information to third parties. CONTACT INFO: ???? asorehackcorp@gmail.com cyberprecinct@gmail.com Copyright ©️ Asore Cyber Corp 2021. All rights reserved.

Grace Allday
Grace Allday
Oct 13, 2021

I was searching for loan to sort out my bills& debts, then i saw comments about Blank ATM Credit Card that can be hacked to withdraw money from any ATM machines around you. I doubted this but decided to give it a try by contacting {professional.hacker55@yahoo.com} they responded with their guidelines on how the card works. I was assured that the card can withdraw $5,000 instant per day & was credited with$50,000,000.00 so i requested for one & paid the delivery fee to obtain the card, after 24 hours later, i was shock to see the UPS agent in my resident with a parcel{card} i signed and went back inside and confirmed the card work's after the agent left. This is no doubts because i have the card & has made used of the card. This hackers are USA based hackers set out to help people with financial freedom!! Contact these email if you wants to get rich with this Via: professional.hacker55@yahoo.com.

Grace Allday
Grace Allday
Oct 13, 2021

I was searching for loan to sort out my bills& debts, then i saw comments about Blank ATM Credit Card that can be hacked to withdraw money from any ATM machines around you. I doubted this but decided to give it a try by contacting {professional.hacker55@yahoo.com} they responded with their guidelines on how the card works. I was assured that the card can withdraw $5,000 instant per day & was credited with$50,000,000.00 so i requested for one & paid the delivery fee to obtain the card, after 24 hours later, i was shock to see the UPS agent in my resident with a parcel{card} i signed and went back inside and confirmed the card work's after the agent left. This is no doubts because i have the card & has made used of the card. This hackers are USA based hackers set out to help people with financial freedom!! Contact these email if you wants to get rich with this Via: professional.hacker55@yahoo.com.

Raul
Raul
Oct 19, 2021

1. If you are in SSW how many degrees to the opposite side, and explain why and what Quadrant by applying boxing the compass? 2. Explain carefully the procedure why boxing the compass applying 11 +1/4 degrees, in order to determine and compensate by 360 degrees. 3. What is the Basic procedures to determine the object thru celestial observation and by bearing object with three methods to get the fix position. Explain? 4. 360 degrees is equal to 000 degrees north, in that location what action to be taken in order to compensate your gyro course by 315 degrees when you are turning to west and you going to locate the variation and deviation?Explain. 5. Explain what is the Latitude and Longitude and their functions? in relation to determine the fox position when you observing the bearing object thru compass especially the celestial bodies such as the sun, moon, stars, etc

Leave Comment