position fixing ship by bearing

Heavy traffic, extra Look out posted, hours of darkness. Suddenly the GPS is gone !!! Ever experienced this ?

Believe me when it happens, you start doubting each and every equipment. Even the ones which may be working fine at that moment.

Is the gyro giving correct heading ?  Is the echo sounder showing correct depth ? You will doubt everything !!! That’s not good.

You will loose the sense of direction. And you would have tiny amount of time to regain the sense and act in a way that is right.

The entire navigation depends upon knowing the position of the ship. This is one of the most important task of a navigator.

But when I say position, I do not only mean GPS position. There are many other ways of plotting the ship’s position. And as with the situation of GPS failing, we must be ready to switch to other methods of position fixing.

Before we proceed with discussing these methods, I must discuss a term which is so much a part of passage planning. The term is “position Fixing Interval”.

Position Fixing Interval

“Position fixing interval” is the maximum interval between two position fixes. So if in a particular section of the passage, we have agreed to the PFI of 01 hour, we must plot the ship’s position at least every hour.

But how do we decide the position fixing interval ?

For that just think why do we need to plot the position ? We plot position to be sure that we are on our track and not drifting towards a danger.

With that logic in mind, let us take an example.

I plot a position at 0800 Hrs. The agreed position fixing interval is 30 minutes. Now just after 0800 Hrs, the vessel starts to draft directly towards a danger.

Position fixing interval 30 minutes

I will only come to know about that at 0830 Hrs when I plot the next position of the ship. If at 0830 Hrs, vessel is at the danger then the PFI was set too high.Because before we could know that we are running into danger, we already were at the danger.

So even if vessel deviates from its course, the interval between two consecutive position fixes should be such that allows time to take the course corrective action.

Method of position Fixes

There are many methods by which we can get a fix of the ship’s position. Some of which are

  • Celestial fix by using sextant
  • Visual fix
  • Radar Fix
  • GPS
  • Echo sounder
  • Parallel Indexing

Primary method of position fixing

One of the element of passage planning is to identify the primary and secondary method of position fixing at each leg of the passage.

There should always be at least two method of position fixing.

Now at open sea, the primary method is GPS and secondary method would be “celestial fix”.

Preference for Primary method of Position FixingIf there is a radar conspicuous object, the primary method of position fixing becomes the “radar fix”. Secondary in this case would be GPS.

Now if that object is also visible, primary method becomes the “Visual fix”. In this case secondary method will be “Radar fix”.

The idea is that Visual fix gets the highest priority followed by radar fix. And radar fix gets the priority over GPS.

On tankers the vetting inspectors expects that if available visual and/or radar fixes must be plotted at least for the PFI.

For example let us say that the set PFI is 10 Minutes and the agreed position fixing method is Radar and Visual fix. Let us say we plot position at

  • 0900 Hrs: Radar or Visual Fix
  • 0910: Position by GPS
  • 0920: Radar or Visual Fix

This is considered to be wrong and would draw a vetting observation as the radar/visual position is plotted after 20 minutes where as PFI is 10 Minutes.

Celestial Fix using sextant

This method is not so popular during coastal navigation because of few reasons.

One because this method requires some time to know the position because of calculations involved.

Second because there are chances of user induced error (like error in taking the sight). That may not be so nice when ship is navigating in the proximity of dangers during coastal navigation.

But there is a gross misconception about this method among many seafarers. Misconception is that position by celestial observations are not accurate.

Instead, if we can have our hands set perfectly to take accurate sextant altitude, the position obtained by this method are quite accurate.

There are few disadvantages with this method.

Even though this method do not rely on electronic equipments and satellites but it need nature in our favour.

We need clear sky and clear horizon so that we can measure the altitude of the celestial body.

Even when the sky is clear, it is difficult to measure the sextant altitude when ship is rolling.

“How to use sextant to get the ship’s position” is too big a topic to fit in this post and I will write on that in detail on some other day.

Position by GPS fixes

Do I need to say anything about GPS fixes ? Even the supernumaries on board know how to plot GPS position.

This is most over relied method of position fixing. Over relied for a good reason. It is Crisp accurate (most of the time) and quick fix.

On Modern ECDIS, navigators do not need to do anything in plotting the GPS positions. These are plotted automatically at the set interval.

Some ECDIS can even record the ship’s position when it senses change in any parameters like change in course.

For the passage planning we must ensure that PFI is set in the ECDIS, so that GPS positions are marked and recorded automatically in the ECDIS.

To set the PFI in furuno ECDIS, go to DISP -> SET -> and then choose Symbol DISP.

Symbol display setting in Furuno ECDIS

Now go to Tracking. The Position fixing interval can be set under Labels. Once set, the GPS position will be recorded at the mentioned interval.

Position Fixing interval In ECDIS

GPS fixes are accurate, no doubt about that. The only issue with GPS fixes is the Complacency and over-reliance. Over-reliance to the extent that we may find ourself unconfortable if the GPS fails.

Radar Fixes

Position by radar gives quite accurate results and must be used whenever we have radar conspicuous objects.

The advantage with radar fixes is that it just needs one object to get the ship’s position. We can get the range and bearing of this object and plot the same on the chart.

For example let us say we get the bearing of this light as 050 degrees and range as 4.4 NM.

We will draw a line of 050 degrees to this light. We will then measure 4.4 NM on the compass and cut the bearing line with this distance.

radar fix by bearing and range

In the same way, if you have two objects, you can plot the radar fix by number of combinations of position lines like

  • bearings of these two objects
  • bearing of one object and range of other object
  • range of both objects

As more and more ships are moving to the paperless navigation, we must know how to fix the ship’s position by radar on ECDIS.

So let us fix the ship’s position on Furuno ECDIS.

Let us say for this island, we get a bearing of 010 Degrees and distance 2.5NM from the radar.

On Furuno ECDIS go to Record -> This will open a position event window. Choose LOP and then choose True-bearing + Distance option.

position event on ECDIS

Now click on the point of the island for which the bearing and distance were taken from the radar.

Now enter the bearing and distance in the position event window and then click “Add”.

Add position on Furuno ECDIS

This will give you your position.

plotting radar fix on ECDIS

Now if you wish to record this position in the memory of ECDIS, click “Record” in the position event window. The position will be plotted on ECDIS and recorded in the memory.

EP Fix by Radar on Furuno ECDIS

 

If we have two bearings (or two range) of two objects, the process of plotting radar fix on ECDIS is same as above. Just instead of “bearing + Distance”, choose “bearing” (or distance) option.

Visual Fixes

Visual fixes are least practiced position fixing method inspite of being accurate. All it requires is a visual target and compass for taking its bearing.

Position by Visual bearing of two objects

If we have two objects that are visible from the ship, the bearing of these two can get us the ship’s position.

For a better accuracy of position by two bearings, the two bearings should neither be too narrow nor too wide. Separation angle close to 45 degrees being the ideal one.

To plot the position by visual bearings of two objects, take the bearings of both the objects simultaneously.

Now draw the bearing of these objects on the charts. The point where these two bearings (position lines) intersect will be the ship’s position.

position by visual bearing

How to do this on ECDIS ?

The process is same what we did for plotting radar fix on ECDIS.

Position by Running Fix

Even when there is only one object visible for visual bearing, we can still get the position. The method is called “running fix”.

In this method, we take the first bearing of this object before when it is forward of our beam. Let us say we see a light Fl 5s 20m 16M. At 2000 Hrs we take its bearing and it comes out to be 020 degrees.

Plot it on the chart. This is the first position line at 2000 Hrs.

Take the second bearing of same object when it is abaft the beam. Say this time we take the bearing at 2020 and the bearing is 300 Degrees.

Plot it on chart. This is the position line at 2020 Hrs.

Running Fix

Now we have two position lines but both are at different times. We need to bring either of these position lines to the same time as the other one.

How do we do that ?

We know our course made good and speed, plot the this on the chart. Now on this course line cut the distance covered in 20 minutes which is the interval between two position lines. Let us name this point as point A.

Running fix 1

Now transfer your first position line to the point A. The point where it cuts the 2nd position line is the ship’s position at 2020 Hrs. This is because now both the position lines are at same time.

Running Fix 3

To get the position at 2000 Hrs, draw your course made good from the 2020 Hrs position. The point where it cuts the first position line will be the ship’s position at 2000 Hrs.

running fix position

 

How to get running fix plotted on ECDIS ? Let us plot this on furuno ECDIS.

We take the first bearing of the fixed object and we plot first position line on ECDIS. To do that from the left menu options go to Record -> Event log -> Posn event.

position event on Furuno ECDIS

This will show a pop up called position event.

position event option in Furuno ECDIS

Mark the first position line of the fixed object that you have taken the visual bearing from and click “add” to add the position line.

Running fix on ECDIS first position line

Now when you have the 2nd bearing of the same object, mark the 2nd bearing on the ECDIS in the same way. Make sure the option “transfer off” is slected while marking both the bearing.

Running fix on furuno ECDIS adding 2nd position line

 

So we have the two position lines but both are at different times. We need to transfer the 1st position to the present time to get a fix by “running fix” method.

To do that, choose the position line number 1 from the position event pop up (under LOP observations).

Then change the option to “Transfer to latest”.

Running Fix transfer to latest on Furuno ECDIS

Once we choose “transfer to latest” option for position line # 1, this position line will be transferred to the latest time. You will also see TPL marked on this position line which denotes “transferred position line”.

The position where it cuts the 2nd position line is the ship’s position.

Running fix on ECDIS transferred PL

 

The position where it cuts the 2nd position line is the ship’s position. To record this position in the history data of ECDIS, just click on “record” option in the “position event” pop up. This will mark the ship’s position on the ECDIS and save it in the history data.

position by running fix on ECDIS

Position by Echo Sounder

I am sure not many discuss this as the position fixing method. Rightly so. We have so many resources and we do not need to rely on echo sounder for position fixing.

But as I said, when the GPS fails we start doubting everything and each equipment. More methods of reassuring us about position can be handy.

Echo sounder cannot be used as a position fixing tool but it can be used to confirm the known position of the ship.

Have a look at this photo. This could be one of the place where we can ascertain our position by echo sounder.

position by echo sounder

If we see depth of around 40 meters on echo sounder and at the same time we take bearing of the edge of the island that is visible to us. We draw position line from this island.

As there is only one point on this position line where the depth is expected to be around 40 meters, this will be our estimated position.

Position fix by echo sounder

As I said this is not the position fixing method. But we can use this as a confirmation tool for the position we get from other methods.

Parallel Indexing

We earlier discussed that the interval between two position fixes should be such that between any two fixes, the vessel must be safe.

But this would mean that during arrival into a port, we need to plot our position every 60 seconds.

Many, including some third party inspectors may insist on this but this is crazy. Imagine plotting the radar fixes every two minutes.

Sometimes even the chart would not be of such large scale that can distinguish the two positions plotted at two minutes interval.

I feel PFI of less than 5 minutes is not practical. So how do we ensure ship does not run into danger if PFI need to be less than 5 minutes and we plot the position every 5 minutes ?

The answer is by “parallel indexing”.

We identify a fixed object and draw a line parallel to our course. We then monitor the echo of this object on the radar.

Parallel Indexing techniques

If the echo stays on the line drawn parallel to the course, we are on our course. If the echo deviates from the line, we are off track and we must alter the course to bring the vessel on track.

This is a method which ensures continuous monitoring of the ship’s position.

In the situations where PFI comes out to be less than 5 minutes, we can set the PFI as 5 minutes and then monitor the ship’s position by parallel indexing and plotting the position every 5 minutes.

Parallel indexing is a fantastic tool for monitoring the ship’s position. For this reason, it must be used wherever a radar conspicuous object or landmark is available.

Conclusion

There is one basic requirement that a navigating officer on watch need to fulfil. At all times he must know

  • Where we are, and
  • Where they (other targets) are

Sadly most of the groundings happens because we either do not know one of these or both. If we know all the methods of plotting and then confirming our position, we will never miss out where we are.

With now more and more ships going paperless, we must also transform ourself to be able to use these methods on ECDIS.

Related Blogs

Follow us Today on
our social network

Capt Rajeev Jassal

About Capt Rajeev Jassal

Capt. Rajeev Jassal has sailed for over 19 years mainly on crude oil, product and chemical tankers. He holds MBA in shipping & Logistics degree from London. He has done extensive research on quantitatively measuring Safety culture onboard and safety climate ashore which he believes is the most important element for safer shipping.

Search Blog

85 Comments

Sujay
Sujay
May 7, 2017

Krishna Patel
Krishna Patel
May 7, 2017

A very good effort sir. Very crisp and simple to understand.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
May 15, 2017

Thank you Krishna..

Marc
Marc
Jan 8, 2018

For what? Flat earth or undependable thousand of satellites that cant give GPS. Flat maths sure help to calculate :)

Kenneth Carl
Kenneth Carl
Apr 12, 2018

thank you for this sir, how about plotting celestial observation in furuno ECDIS?

V.B.Kripalani
V.B.Kripalani
May 7, 2017

An excellent and understable way prsented.You must be in teaching business. Please meet another old teacher.Do keep in touch.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
May 15, 2017

Thank you Sir. No, I am not into teaching. I am just trying to give the salt back to sea..

Raman Kumar jha
Raman Kumar jha
May 14, 2017

Dear Sir, very good morning !!! Thanks for easily explain and very useful. Regards, Raman

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
May 15, 2017

Glad you found it useful Raman..

Vijay Thapa
Vijay Thapa
Jul 5, 2017

Sir, Excellent effort ....for made simply understand..Thank you very much, Sir.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Nov 17, 2017

Glad you found it useful Vijay...

Ngo Tan Thai Duong
Ngo Tan Thai Duong
Jul 13, 2017

Dear sir, I would like to ask you that if you have time, can you write a post about the radar techniques in using to manouever the ship during the coastal navigation. I really like it and as I know the ability of the 2nd mate will be identified through his using radar technique. Thanks in advance.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Nov 17, 2017

I will write on this topic in near future...

Peter
Peter
Dec 6, 2017

Many thanks Capt. Rajeev, excellent piece. Allow me a question please. VIQ states that parallel indexing should not be used with floating objects, but what about clearing bearings? I see that many navigators use Clearing Bearings with buoys. Is that acceptable?

Clint
Clint
Jan 25, 2018

Awesome!

siddharth
siddharth
Feb 14, 2018

do we need to put pfi intervals on ecdis chart as well as it is being done by the use of gps labels on ecdis? For instance i am getting time label of 10 mins each on my ecdis track and hence i am monitoring my position continuously still do i need to put pfi interval on user map?

Dhairya joshi
Dhairya joshi
Feb 26, 2018

Sir can we plot radar bearings directly to chart?

PARK JANG KYU
PARK JANG KYU
Jun 21, 2018

Dear Capt. Rajeev Jassal

Kenneth
Kenneth
Sep 4, 2018

Hi, how do we input celestial observation or position in the ECDIS?

CAPTAIN GILBERT LEE
CAPTAIN GILBERT LEE
Dec 7, 2018

good stuff. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLafMfVypK6pOlSQ8ukxo_MXEb2pWxCDZO

Captain Gilbert Lee
Captain Gilbert Lee
Dec 7, 2018

good stuff. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLafMfVypK6pOlSQ8ukxo_MXEb2pWxCDZO

TONY
TONY
Mar 5, 2019

how would i find out position plotting interval for a leg?

JUNIMAR
JUNIMAR
Mar 9, 2020

In open sea, position fixing interval is 1 hour. In coastal waters (when vsl is within 12 NM from shore), for ELECTRONIC CHARTS at interval of not more than 30 minutes with cross checks in between. For PAPER CHARTS, GPS positions to be verified by using simple formula for identifying PFI in coastal water: PFI= 1/2(D) ÷ (V/60), where D is the nearest distance of the shore or obstruction along your LEG and V is the vessel SPEED or planned speed of your passage.

Moh
Moh
Mar 26, 2019

Please in my deck logbook there is method to get position by obs or ac'nt Please can you explain what is the meaning of ac'nt

Dhananjay
Dhananjay
Jul 11, 2019

Pls ezplain about lop in ecdis

Ferobe
Ferobe
Jul 9, 2020

Thank you for sharing your knowledge

Mayank
Mayank
Jul 22, 2020

One thing I have noticed you have skipped the celestial fix plotting on ECDIS , would appreciate if you can explain how celestial fix was plotted on paper chart and how to do the same on an ECDIS ,so that we can co relate e.g. Longitude by Chronometer, Mer-Pass and Intercept . All 3 methods . I am using Transas Navisailor 4000 and I have no clue about it.

Shubham
Shubham
Aug 12, 2020

Can i take the fix using a bouy? If yes then which buoy?

pawan kumar
pawan kumar
Sep 1, 2020

Hello sir can you please tell the position plotting interval in ecdis

Alok Ranjan
Alok Ranjan
Nov 26, 2020

Thank you very much capt sir for ur efforts, it's really simple to understand .

Myo Min Htet
Myo Min Htet
Dec 6, 2020

Very appreciate for sharing your precious knowledge not only present post but also all post from MySeaTime blog. Most of comfuse things are clear after I read your post. Thank you sir.

Alan
Alan
Jan 2, 2021

Sir can you pls fiil in some more info on the use of eho sounder and logs when used as a means of position fixing

Nad Rosero
Nad Rosero
Jan 15, 2021

Dear sir, Thanks for sharing this knowledgeble information, one of the best idea that I/we must be learned as a seafarer. ????

Harshit
Harshit
Jan 28, 2021

Can someone advise can we plot position using light buoy??? If we can in which manual is it written??

Harshit
Harshit
Jan 28, 2021

In my previous comment I want to mention light vessel instead of light buoy..

MD. RABIUL HOSSAIN
MD. RABIUL HOSSAIN
Apr 6, 2021

It is very easy and full of information that you are provided on each topics, which is very helpful for COC exam as well as for practical sea life. Tks indeed.

NEOFYTOS ADAKTYLOS
NEOFYTOS ADAKTYLOS
Apr 8, 2021

What about DR fixes?

Levi Armstrong
Levi Armstrong
May 19, 2021

It's great that you mentioned that GPS fixes help automatically fix intervals and record the boat's position and not be over-reliant on it. My dad and brother are going on a fishing trip this weekend to the sea. I'll share this with them later. Thanks! https://wharf-marine-sales.myshopify.com/products/garmin-gpsmap-743-chartplotter-preloaded-us-canada-bahamas-bluechart-g3-lakev-g3-010-02365-01?_pos=1&_sid=581275453&_ss=r

ANEESH
ANEESH
Jul 1, 2021

Thank You Very Much Sir. Very nicely explained all aspects of position fixing.

bahaa gad abd elmaksoud
bahaa gad abd elmaksoud
Sep 29, 2021

Thanks alot for your time and efforts Really perfect

Raul
Raul
Oct 19, 2021

1. If you are in SSW how many degrees to the opposite side, and explain why and what Quadrant by applying boxing the compass? 2. Explain carefully the procedure why boxing the compass applying 11 +1/4 degrees, in order to determine and compensate by 360 degrees. 3. What is the Basic procedures to determine the object thru celestial observation and by bearing object with three methods to get the fix position. Explain? 4. 360 degrees is equal to 000 degrees north, in that location what action to be taken in order to compensate your gyro course by 315 degrees when you are turning to west and you going to locate the variation and deviation?Explain. 5. Explain what is the Latitude and Longitude and their functions? in relation to determine the fox position when you observing the bearing object thru compass especially the celestial bodies such as the sun, moon, stars, etc

NCLEXDIYS
NCLEXDIYS
Dec 16, 2021

Avec la montée des trolls sur Internet, trouver du contenu Web décent devient de plus en plus difficile chaque jour. Ce fut un soulagement de découvrir votre page Web. Je serais heureux d'ajouter de la valeur à votre contenu car nous pouvons vous aider ACHETER UN CERTIFICAT NCLEX EN LIGNE ​< /a> Continuez votre bon travail. bravo W.I-C+K.R.M:E//: yungreddgotit

NCLEXDIYS
NCLEXDIYS
Dec 16, 2021

With the rise of internet trolls, finding decent web content is getting harder everyday. It was a relief coming across your webpage. I'd be happy to add value to your content too as we can help you BUY NCLEX CERTIFICATE ONLINE ​ Keep up the good work y'all. cheers W.I-C+K.R.M:E//: yungreddgotit

Devin Calloway
Devin Calloway
Jan 30, 2022

As a novice in the crypto world, I had a wrong transaction and got ripped off by a scammer through an investment scam, I lost about 0.7 btc and 1.5 eth to him. I spoke to a friend who's a crypto expert and he referred me CLEVERHACKER.HACK@GMAIL.COM, in less than 48 hours after following due procedures by him I got my btc and Eth back, he's a life saver. You can also text him at (803)814-5462

sandra dunk
sandra dunk
Feb 14, 2022

I really appreciate GARY MCKINNON for his great job and I'm here to tell whoever needs to fix their credit. He raised my credit to a very high score, far beyond my expectation. Just for your info, I’m not under any compulsion to do this 5 star review to a worthy fellow. My score was brought from 432 to 815 excellent and all the derogatory and criminal record got removed including the chexy system without leaving any trace He is very honest and he has helped me and several other people. You can get in touch with him on his email (GARYMCKINNONCREDITSERVICES@GMAIL.COM)

Tonia James
Tonia James
Feb 19, 2022

I observed him through google search recommended by individuals who he helped recover their lost funds from tricksters. I am in same circumstance and I wanted a solution so I could recover my funds. because I had terrible experience with the phony recuperation service ,i never accept i can find someone who is reliable, honest & legitimate until he prove his self right. Things have been so difficult for myself and I needed to get few assistance so I can move on and be free from obligations with family. He set me free and pay all my exceptional debt after recovering the funds. REACH HIM ON THIS DETAILS FOR HELP: PermanentCreditRepairer@Gmail.Com

tia wayne
tia wayne
Feb 27, 2022

Your credit is the most important thing to you , without your credit the world is empty , there is how to do anything with ease , only to do it with stress , Richard Pryce thought and let me know how important my credit is , now there is nothing I can solve financially with my good credit score , mail him now on RICHARDREPAIRCREDIT@GMAIL.COM to solve your credit problem and change your life.

Thant Zin
Thant Zin
Feb 28, 2022

Dear Sir, I would like to ask one question. For Example, when i took brg and distance of Radar Object and plotted on Ecdis Than there is discrepancy on ecdis but ENC are up ro date and WGS84. My question is that ship position can be offsetted? Do i have to add position offset? Because i can clearly see distance of Radar range and brg considering the counts of High of tide and Gyro Error.

joham william
joham william
Mar 3, 2022

The flashlight of an iPhone not only sheds enough light to help us in navigating the lost keys, reading in a camp, but it also allows us to lighting up the route or rocking out at a concert, etc.flashlight iphone not working visit.

Kelly Darrin
Kelly Darrin
Mar 25, 2022

THANKS SO MUCH RICH FOR COMING IN WHEN EVERYTHING WAS UPSIDE DOWN AND TAKE AWAY MY SORROW BY LETTING ME OUT OF DEBT AND NEGATIVE ITEMS ON MY CREDIT REPORT, HE ALSO HELP MY WIFE RECOVER HER LOST BITCOINS TO FAKE VENDOR. THANKS AGAIN FOR BEENIN A LIFE SAVER. LOVE YOU MORE THAN YOU IMAGINE ! GET HIM BY MEANS OF :(RICHSKRENTACYBERSERVICE@GMAIL.COM) and via text (925) 480-7813

mizan
mizan
Apr 4, 2022

Top 10 Echo is one of the best product review-based sites where you can get cheap and qualitative products. Get a discount before anyone else!

Brandy Wood
Brandy Wood
Apr 27, 2022

I had an extremely low score of around 529 and I was frantic with worry for brilliant and urgent fixed? Wonderful PERMANENT REPAIRER cleared all negatives, late payments and 2 collections from my credit report plus boosted my FICO score from 529 to 801 fantastic within eight days or less. I confidently suggested HIM VIA EMAIL: PERMANENTCREDITREPAIRER(@)GMAIL(DOT)COM !!! They did a perfect job without leaving any type of trace behind. He additionally made me earn 0.3 BTC daily, you can likewise earn BTC by email them and requested for help.

itsolivergeorge
itsolivergeorge
Apr 29, 2022

The right lighting gear can make or break a portrait. If the light source is too harsh, your subject will look like a zombie. But if the lights are too soft, you’ll end up with an image that seems washed-out and dull. 6 PORTRAIT LIGHTING SETUPS THAT ARE ESSENTIAL

dennis clinton
dennis clinton
May 5, 2022

I know of a professional and reliable hacker that can help you increase your credit score within some 72hours.?He can remove stuffs from any credit bureau, clear off maxed credit card debt ,and also remove late payments on trans union equifax and experian and add good record accounts I still can’t believe I have a credit score of 815 and permanently removed all negatives on my credit Like student loans, evictions , charge offs , debts. I get approved for any type of loan with my new credit. I just bought a home for my family and i so much appreciate him for his good work. You can get in touch with him via mail (GARYMCKINNONCREDITSERVICES@GMAIL.COM)

Carrie Rice
Carrie Rice
Oct 27, 2022

I was asked to give my thoughts on GEARHEADPANACEA.COM because I was pleased with how my score improved and how much they taught me. To whom it may concern, all I can say is that they are good at their job and if you need any cyber related help you can visit their website or email gearheadcyberpanacea@gmail.com

Timothy Borden
Timothy Borden
Oct 31, 2022

I'm happy to share my experience working with GARY MCKINNON since I had some bad credit reports that severely damaged my family and myself. I looked online to see what people were saying about him and decided to approach him via email after seeing their positive reviews. He resolved all of my report's concerns in less than 72 hours. If you have any questions about your credit scores please contact him right away GARYMCKINNONCYBERSERVICES@GMAIL.COM

Clarence Hill
Clarence Hill
Nov 3, 2022

It's a new month; don't begin with a poor credit record or low credit ratings.He can help you improve your credit score, remove any negative information from your credit report, and get back any BTC or ETH that has been lost or stolen. In less than 72 hours, GARY MCKINNON will be able to complete all of your repairs. He is unflappable, calm, and extremely skilled. Email him at GARYMCKINNONCYBERSERVICES@GMAIL.COM or Text +1 607 764 0018 .

stacy
stacy
Nov 10, 2022

Hi everyone I'm Stacy and I'd like to say a very big thank you to the lady who made a comment about how she got her bitcoin recovered back to her wallet with the help of ULTIMATE HACKER JERRY   co - incidentally I was facing a similar problem, without hesitation I had to reach out to Him for help in recovering my lost bitcoin onHow Do I Recover My Stolen cryptocurrency/BTC Recovery!!!  fake CRYPTO INVESTMENT PLATFORM, and right now I am attesting to comment, he is a truly awesome as they say, I got back my bitcoin in a short time,  i recommend Jerry to anyone (Ultimatehackerjerry@seznam. Cz) You can also WhasApp on (+1 520 -329-0320) (+1 551-2022-335)

Isabella Lucas
Isabella Lucas
Nov 11, 2022

My ex-husband and I had always managed to stay friendly after our divorce in February 2017. But I always wanted to get back together with him, All it took was a visit to this spell casters website last December, because my dream was to start a new year with my husband, and live happily with him.. This spell caster requested a specific love spell for me and my husband, and I accepted it. And this powerful spell caster began to work his magic. And 48 hours after this spell caster worked for me, my husband called me back for us to be together again, and he was remorseful for all his wrong deeds. My spell is working because guess what: My “husband” is back and we are making preparations on how to go to court and withdraw our divorce papers ASAP. This is nothing short of a miracle. Thank you Dr Emu for your powerful spells. Words are not enough. Email emutemple@gmail.com Phone/WhatsApp +2347012841542.

allen westwood
allen westwood
Nov 11, 2022

Have you guys checked out this guy GARY MCKINNON CREDIT SERVICES involved with any sort of hack,i come across him through my friend because have already explain to him about the rip off i got while trying to increase my credit score when its was low by some programmers this hacker is incredible, in 72 hours he wiped the eviction blemish,tax liens, collection and my heavy student loans off my credit report and this had a huge impact on my credit score.he got my score up from 580 and now i'm scoring a wonderful 815 and all thanks to this excellent credit specialist. reach out to him for your credit repair service and credit score increment. (GARYMCKINNONCREDITSERVICES@GMAIL.COM)

Elizabeth Green
Elizabeth Green
Nov 14, 2022

Hello there, I'm thrilled to be able to share this testimony with you all. I put 80% of my savings, or approximately 6BTC, into an online trade. Scammers took everything from me! I had given up on everything! I had expenses to pay and was worried about not keeping all of my promises to my family this Christmas. I spoke with a few of my pals, but everything came back negative. I went online and found an article praising the good work of a man named MCKINNON for someone. I decided to give it a shot with him, and guess what???!!! He retrieved all of my stolen bitcoins in just three days. Can you believe that, my people? How incredible is that??? Anyone with a similar situation? Rush into his Email box right away GARYMCKINNONCYBERSERVICES@GMAIL.COM

Christina
Christina
Nov 14, 2022

Hi everyone, I'm Christina Strickland and a few months ago I fell victim to this investment platform and lost over $95,000 in cryptocurrency, they said it was going to double my income in over a week or two but turns out it was a huge scam, I couldn’t bear the loss so I contacted Wardrivers Cyber Service through a colleague of mine at work who used his service successfully to recover and apprehend the scammers. I contacted him and sent all proof and evidence, he was able to see me through my situation. You can contact him at wardriverscyberservice@techie.com or WhatsApp at +1 (616) 898-7285.

Christina Strickland
Christina Strickland
Nov 16, 2022

Good day everyone, I'm Christina Strickland and I want to share my story of how I was scammed for over $420,000. I met this guy online and we talked for over 8 months. He brought up some story of how he needed help with his project and I sent him money via Bitcoin atm and several bank accounts, I almost lost everything, my kids abandoned me and my family turned on me. I was depressed and left with a bad credit score after all the loans I took out for him. I came across a review online about a hacker called Cyberwall fire service and I contacted them, luckily for me, I kept all the evidence and they were able to recover all of my funds and expose these scammers. I decided to share this testimony with anyone who might be going through the same predicament I went through at the hands of these scammers. You can contact Cyberwall fire service at (cyberwallfire@techie.com) or WhatsApp at +1 (281) 209-5729. Thank you

Maria Elisabeth
Maria Elisabeth
Nov 17, 2022

FOR RECOVERY OF STOLEN BITCOIN / CRYPTOCURRENCY , RECOVERY OF LOST FUNDS FROM SCAMMER. Have you ever been a victim of a scam? or have you lost your money to fake hackers online? I implore you to contact this trustworthy hacker and recovery expert (wizarderrick@gmail.com) /Whats’App +1 (616) 540-6244. I was a victim of fake people posing as binary options and bitcoin investors, I lost a sum of $4,000 and 2BTC from my bitcoin wallet to these fakes. It took a while before I realized they were scams and this really hurt .Then an in-law of mine heard about it and recommended to me a specialist with the address - (wizarderrick@gmail.com) /Whats’App +1 (616) 540-6244. He helped me recover my lost bitcoins in less than 72hrs and the fakes were caught and made to pay for what they did to me .if you have lost any amount to online scams and you're seeking to recover LOST FUNDS from wallet hackers, fake hackers, online dating scams, BTC wallet hack, recovery of lost funds from fake binary investors .Reach out to Wizard Errick Group Hackers to help you out.

Shirin Syed
Shirin Syed
Nov 17, 2022

If you hire a qualified and experienced hacker like Nahshon Even-Chaim (PHOENIX) who deals with credit repairs, then they will help you to protect all your data. Even though a hacker cost some bucks but still it is important to have a hacker as they will prevent exploiting the computer system or network. They will easily identify the flaws in a shorter time, remove negative items as well as all hard inquiries and also improve the protection of your data/credit. And Phoenix is the best you can ever try out Contact via email: nahshonevenchaimcreditrepair@my.com #: (352) 234-6445 WhatsApp: (352) 438-8066 And be vowed at how your bad credit will become history in couple of days.

Asorehackcorp
Asorehackcorp
Nov 19, 2022

ASOREHACKCORP is a financial regulator, private investigation and funds recovery body. We specialize in cases as regards ETHICAL HACKING, CRYPTOCURRENCY, FAKE INVESTMENT SCHEMES and RECOVERY SCAM. No UPFRONT FEE is required. We are also experts in CREDIT REPAIR { EXUIFAX, EXPERIAN, TRANSUNION }. Contact our support team via the email address below to get started. asorehackcorp@gmail.com Stay Safe !

Theresa
Theresa
Nov 20, 2022

My credit score was bad and desperately in need of a loan but I won't be able to get the loan due to my credit score. I read several reviews about Frank Even-Teri Credit Repair and He help me raise my credit score to 800 in a couple of days. He remove all negative items and also got approved of mortgage loan within few days. He offers legit services such as credit repair, clearing of bad records online without being traced back to you, He clone phones, hack Facebook account, instagram, WhatsApp, emails, Twitter, bank accounts, Skype, FIXES CREDIT REPORTs, track calls. He also help retrieve accounts that have been taking by hackers. His charges are affordable and he is reliable. Want the same help? Contact frankeventericreditrepair (@) gmail (DOT) com Or @ hackfrankly on Telegram

Gina Rineheart
Gina Rineheart
Nov 21, 2022

Good News From Martins Blank ATM Cards And Bitcoin Investments.. Have you been trying to get a real blank ATM Card or bitcoin and it has been a problem trying to get one? Here is Martins Blank ATM Card easy and affordable to get and it can be delivered to you waiting 24hrs after you have made your order from me at: martinshackers22@gmail.com

Wayn Adams
Wayn Adams
Dec 2, 2022

Hey everyone I bring to you good news.. Have been playing lottery for years now and unable to win I even came to conclusion that I won't play lottery again, last Monday I came online and I saw a post about Dr dominion spell lottery number I doubted but decided to give a last try and I reach out to him, we chatted to my greatest surprise on Thursday he cast a spell and gave me a winning number and i tried the numbers, guess what guys I won the lottery, my retired mom has be playing too and I have asked her to reach Dr dominion and I know soon she is going to win, if you want to win this lottery I will advice u reach on Dr dominion he has all it requires to make u win Email: dominionlottospelltemple@gmail.com website: https://dominionlottospell.wixsite.com/dr-dominion WhatsApp: +16574277820 Call: +12059642462

Wayn Adams
Wayn Adams
Dec 2, 2022

Hey everyone I bring to you good news.. Have been playing lottery for years now and unable to win I even came to conclusion that I won't play lottery again, last Monday I came online and I saw a post about Dr dominion spell lottery number I doubted but decided to give a last try and I reach out to him, we chatted to my greatest surprise on Thursday he cast a spell and gave me a winning number and i tried the numbers, guess what guys I won the lottery, my retired mom has be playing too and I have asked her to reach Dr dominion and I know soon she is going to win, if you want to win this lottery I will advice u reach on Dr dominion he has all it requires to make u win Email: dominionlottospelltemple@gmail.com website: https://dominionlottospell.wixsite.com/dr-dominion WhatsApp: +16574277820 Call: +12059642462

Richard Weaver
Richard Weaver
Dec 5, 2022

Desperately in need of a legitimate hacker to help you recover your lost or stolen crypto assets, spy and monitor a suspected cheating partner, website hacks, phone cloning, credit score upgrade, and many more. contact HACK MAVENS, they are the best for the job. Below is their contact information; Email: H A C K M A V E N S 5 (AT) GMAIL DOT COM Call/Text/WhatsApp: + 1 (209) 417 – 1957

Zahyn
Zahyn
Dec 5, 2022

If you are having trust issues with your partner and need an expert hacker to help you with getting into their private messages then I will recommend that you send an Email to Mr John. He is an expert and really good at what he does. He offers legit services such as credit repair, clearing of bad records online without being traced back to you, He clone phones, hack Facebook account, instagram, WhatsApp, emails, Twitter, bank accounts, Skype, FIXES CREDIT REPORTs, track calls. He also help retrieve accounts and crypto wallet/exchanges that have been taking by hackers. His charges are affordable, reliable and 100% safe. Contact him via address @ JOHN_ASSURED_SS (AT) yahoo (DOT) com

Gina Rineheart
Gina Rineheart
Dec 5, 2022

Good News From Martins Blank ATM Cards And Bitcoin Investments:( martinshackers22@gmail.com ) Have you been trying to get a real blank ATM Card or bitcoin and it has been a problem trying to get one? Here is Martins Blank ATM Card easy and affordable to get and it can be delivered to you waiting 24hrs after you have made your order from me at: martinshackers22@gmail.com

roselyn moore
roselyn moore
Dec 6, 2022

My credit had been on a bad record for a long time. A number of accounts in collection status, and for a long time, I've put off doing anything about it I just want to show my appreciation to Michael calce credit services as promised for helping me fix my credit report. I had an Eviction, Judgement, Repossession and a lot of negative items on my report with a low score of 470. These prevented me from getting a mortgage until I sort for help from Michael calce. After he finished working on my report in just less than 7 days, I was asked for funds to get started with the job and I gave them the benefit of doubt and made some commitments. My fico score was moved from 470 to 815 and all the negative items were deleted from my report. Right now I have a clean profile with wonderful trade lines. In case you need their services, write via (Michaelcalcecreditservices@gmail.com)

Derek
Derek
Dec 16, 2022

I had my DUI records and a few other records legitimately erased without traces. To be honest, when I was told a hacker could do that, I laughed it off. I gave it a try later as I had no choice. This pro hacker Albert Vadim literally saved me. IF YOU NEED HELP, CONTACT ALBERT ON EMAIL: Vadimwebhack@ gmail,com He just helped a cousin of mine gain access to an entire cellphone without physical access. The man is indeed a genius.

Derek
Derek
Dec 16, 2022

I had my DUI records and a few other records legitimately erased without traces. To be honest, when I was told a hacker could do that, I laughed it off. I gave it a try later as I had no choice. This pro hacker Albert Vadim literally saved me. IF YOU NEED HELP, CONTACT ALBERT ON EMAIL: Vadimwebhack@gmail.com OR WHATSAPP +1 (747)225-2004 He just helped a cousin of mine gain access to an entire cellphone without physical access. The man is indeed a genius.

Maria Turk
Maria Turk
Jan 4, 2023

I rarely write reviews, but I had to for this! Because I tried several apps to help with no luck. Back then, I was very confused and always felt awful about my partner’s cheating attitude. I really wanted to track and catch him red-handed. I downloaded this app hoping it would help but I wasn’t satisfied with its features as I needed to monitor my partner closely. I then spoke with a trusted colleague of mine at work and she gave me a genuine recommendation about an ethical private investigator named Michael Calce Wizard, I wrote to his email at michaelcalcewizard78@gmail.com explaining how I wanted to have complete access to his call log, iMessage/SMS, social media activities, gallery, texts, deleted or not, his precise location day in day out. I paid for his services and in about 2-3 hours, I had complete access to his phone. I got concrete evidence. it was unbelievable to see the evidence of cheating on me. Who likes to live with a cheater, I used the evidence I got to file for a divorce. I’m thankful to Michael Calce Wizard for helping me out of my dilemma and suspicions. His services are highly rated and affordable. If you are having trust issues and need valid evidence, how about you contact michaelcalcewizard78@gmail.com. Thank you Michael Calce Wizard for an incredible job !! I highly recommend his services, simply the best. Contact : michaelcalcewizard78@gmail.com WhatsApp Number : +447534072218

Gretel Lyons
Gretel Lyons
Jan 6, 2023

After falling victim to fraud twice trying to recover my stolen USDT, I gave up on the possibilities of ever being able to have it recovered until Gear Head Cyber Panacea was recommended on Quora and I was very grateful to have come across the article as they recovered 85% of my stolen USDT and so I decided to share this for anyone else that might be in need of their services..you can reach them on Gearheadcyberpanacea AT gmail DOT com or check out their website GEARHEADPANACEA dot COM

Delaney M Josef
Delaney M Josef
Jan 8, 2023

GET RICH WITH BLANK ATM CARD, Whatsapp: +18033921735 I want to testify about Dark Web blank atm cards which can withdraw money from any atm machines around the world. I was very poor before and have no job. I saw so many testimony about how Dark Web Cyber hackers send them the atm blank card and use it to collect money in any atm machine and become rich. {DARKWEBONLINEHACKERS@GMAIL.COM} I email them also and they sent me the blank atm card. I have use it to get 500,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of 5,000 USD daily. Dark Web is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any atm machine vault with the use of atm programmed card which runs in automatic mode. You can also contact them for the service below * Western Union/MoneyGram Transfer * Bank Transfer * PayPal / Skrill Transfer * Crypto Mining * CashApp Transfer * Bitcoin Loans * Recover Stolen/Missing Crypto/Funds/Assets Email: darkwebonlinehackers@gmail.com Text & Call or WhatsApp: +18033921735 WEBSITE: https://darkwebonlinehackers.com

Peace James
Peace James
Jan 15, 2023

HOW I GOT BLANK ATM/ CLONE CARDS I lost my job thing's became tough for me and my family and I decided to sort for loan companies here in the United States to take care of my kids as a single mother,but i was advised by my friend to get blank atm card instead as that is what they were using ,that was the first time i heard about such card i thought it was too good to be true because of the good features associated with the card as she has explained that i can purchase one and is a debit card which enable me hack and withdraw $5,500 daily from any atm machine without any trace, i was scared to loose my money for such a card my friend took me to the atm machine to see how she uses the card to withdraw free cash i was surprised and desperate about it immediately she withdrew with the card it was so real and realistic no stress i ordered for the lowest card through their email blankatmdeliveryxpress@gmail.com the lowest is a card of $400 that withdraws $5,500 daily for a period of 6years, this blank cards are real and not traceable when you use, it automatically disconnect the camera in the atm machine so none of your records is capture when using the card on any atm machine, I really recommend this hackers it works in the whole country of the world , you won't regret it get to them immediately Via their email blankatmdeliveryxpress@gmail.com get your blank/ clone cards deliver to you just in 3days and is payment before delivery don't be scared about that as they always deliver 100% don't miss this opportunity get yours immediately and when you see this comments, please help share so alot of people can see this and apply for this card thanks.

Peace James
Peace James
Jan 15, 2023

HOW I GOT BLANK ATM/ CLONE CARDS I lost my job thing's became tough for me and my family and I decided to sort for loan companies here in the United States to take care of my kids as a single mother,but i was advised by my friend to get blank atm card instead as that is what they were using ,that was the first time i heard about such card i thought it was too good to be true because of the good features associated with the card as she has explained that i can purchase one and is a debit card which enable me hack and withdraw $5,500 daily from any atm machine without any trace, i was scared to loose my money for such a card my friend took me to the atm machine to see how she uses the card to withdraw free cash i was surprised and desperate about it immediately she withdrew with the card it was so real and realistic no stress i ordered for the lowest card through their email blankatmdeliveryxpress@gmail.com the lowest is a card of $400 that withdraws $5,500 daily for a period of 6years, this blank cards are real and not traceable when you use, it automatically disconnect the camera in the atm machine so none of your records is capture when using the card on any atm machine, I really recommend this hackers it works in the whole country of the world , you won't regret it get to them immediately Via their email blankatmdeliveryxpress@gmail.com get your blank/ clone cards deliver to you just in 3days and is payment before delivery don't be scared about that as they always deliver 100% don't miss this opportunity get yours immediately and when you see this comments, please help share so alot of people can see this and apply for this card thanks.

Peace James
Peace James
Jan 15, 2023

HOW I GOT BLANK ATM/ CLONE CARDS I lost my job thing's became tough for me and my family and I decided to sort for loan companies here in the United States to take care of my kids as a single mother,but i was advised by my friend to get blank atm card instead as that is what they were using ,that was the first time i heard about such card i thought it was too good to be true because of the good features associated with the card as she has explained that i can purchase one and is a debit card which enable me hack and withdraw $5,500 daily from any atm machine without any trace, i was scared to loose my money for such a card my friend took me to the atm machine to see how she uses the card to withdraw free cash i was surprised and desperate about it immediately she withdrew with the card it was so real and realistic no stress i ordered for the lowest card through their email blankatmdeliveryxpress@gmail.com the lowest is a card of $400 that withdraws $5,500 daily for a period of 6years, this blank cards are real and not traceable when you use, it automatically disconnect the camera in the atm machine so none of your records is capture when using the card on any atm machine, I really recommend this hackers it works in the whole country of the world , you won't regret it get to them immediately Via their email blankatmdeliveryxpress@gmail.com get your blank/ clone cards deliver to you just in 3days and is payment before delivery don't be scared about that as they always deliver 100% don't miss this opportunity get yours immediately and when you see this comments, please help share so alot of people can see this and apply for this card thanks.

kate peterson
kate peterson
Jan 25, 2023

Finally my happiness has been restored, I can't believe that my husband Court case has been dropped permanently after all that i have spent just to make sure the Court case dropped, Dr IBOZUA came from nowhere and perform this miracle in less than 2 day, i will continue sharing your good deeds, for confirmation Dr IBOZUA also cast love spell, promotion spell, and others spell, email him today dr.ibozuasolutioncenter@gmail.com or WhatsApp/call him now +2348109374702.

Mike
Mike
Jan 28, 2023

MAKE MONEY EVERY DAY WITH BLANK ATM CARD. Do you need Urgent money to pay bills, school fees, buy a house or to start up a business? We offer you cloned ATM card that have up to $100,000,00. Please note: Your bank details/address are not required before you can use the card. The ATM card is programmed to dispense cash from any machine worldwide and pay you in your local currency. Your daily withdrawal can be $500 to $10,000 depending on the card option you ordered. It also works on POS and online transaction are enable. For more info on how the card works and to get proof, kindly Contact us with below details. Whatsap : +13232017253. Email us: freebl...@gmail.com Facebook Page: https://web.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100075875575566

Mike
Mike
Jan 28, 2023

MAKE MONEY EVERY DAY WITH BLANK ATM CARD. Do you need Urgent money to pay bills, school fees, buy a house or to start up a business? We offer you cloned ATM card that have up to $100,000,00. Please note: Your bank details/address are not required before you can use the card. The ATM card is programmed to dispense cash from any machine worldwide and pay you in your local currency. Your daily withdrawal can be $500 to $10,000 depending on the card option you ordered. It also works on POS and online transaction are enable. For more info on how the card works and to get proof, kindly Contact us with below details. Whatsap : +13232017253. Email us: freeblankatm@gmail.com

Leave Comment