understanding IMO conventions & resolution

We all come across so many IMO resolution, conventions and circulars while being in shipping industry.

So many that we may get confused sometimes as to what purpose each of these serve. we now take a look at each one of these, starting with IMO resolutions.

1. Resolution

At IMO, Maritime resolutions are issued by the Assembly, The council and by each of the committee.

Each committee brings resolutions to amend part of International convention that they are associated with.

Like Maritime safety committee handles conventions related to safety. The most popular being “International convention for safety of life at Sea (SOLAS)” and STCW convention.

So MSC brings resolutions to amend any part of these conventions. Similarly MEPC’s resolutions amends MARPOL convention and Facilitation Committee’s resolutions amends FAL convention.

Each resolution of IMO looks something like this

XYZ.123(34)

Where the initial letter(s) shows who has passed this resolution.

The letter can be A (for Assembly), C (for Council), MSC (For Maritime safety committee), MEPC (for Maritime environment pollution committee), FAL (Facilitation committee) or LEG (legal Committee).

The next number shows the resolution number and it is in chronological order.

The number in the bracket shows the sessions in which this resolution was adopted.  So the resolution MSC.374(93) refers to the MSC resolution number 374 which was adopted in the 93rd session of the MSC.

MSC Resolution highlighting the resolution number

Why to amend a convention

The only permanent thing in this world is Change. And the way we move our cargoes through sea and the way ships are operating at sea is changing every single day.

A convention passed 30 years back may have many elements which are not applicable today. Same way, We might discover new strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, which were not the part of original convention.

Take an example of Security. Post year 2001, suddenly the world realised a new threat to the shipping which was security. And to address that, we could either bring a security convention or amend an existing convention to include security.

Drafting, ratification, approving, acceptance and implementing a new convention is a tedious and time consuming process.

So unless the new identified threats are too unique to be included in the existing conventions, it is always better to amemd the existing convention.

Take another example of Convention of pollution prevention at sea (MARPOL). Pollution was  totally different from safety and so instead of including MARPOL in SOLAS convention, we got new convention called MARPOL.

Also take an example of Ballast water convention. The topic of ballast water was much debatable. The debate was on its inclusion in the MARPOL as another annex or as a stand alone convention.

Even though ballast water was considered to be a kind of pollution but at the end it was agreed that the ballast water is a unique area from other pollutions and hence instead of including it in MARPOL, a new convention was adopted.

See the results, ballast water convention was adopted in 2004 and as of 1st Jan 2016, ballast water convention is still not ratified.

How resolutions are proposed, adopted and passed

For a resolution to come into effect, there are 5 main steps

  1. A contracting government need to propose a resolution.
  2. IMO or its respective committee need to review the resolution proposal
  3. Resolution need to be adopted in the IMO and finally
  4. Resolution need to be accepted by the contracting governments
  5. After a fixed time from acceptance, a resolution enters into force.

Proposal of the resolution

There are two ways an amendment to a maritime convention can be proposed to the IMO.

1. By any contracting government

2. By a group of contracting governments.

Clearly in the first option any contracting government can propose an amendment to the secretary general.

SG would pass the proposal to the MSC or MEPC for review. MSC or MEPC in consultation with appropriate sub-committee would draft and submit the resolution for adoption.

In the second option, A contracting government proposes the amendment for which they have concurrence of atleast one-third of the contracting governments.

The concurrence by the other governments can be given to the appropriate committee. In this case, the committee arranges for a conference of the contracting governments to consider the amendments.

The advantage of the second option is that it is the faster way of proposing and adopting an amendment to the convention.

Adoption of a resolution

Resolutions are adopted by voting in Maritime safety committee or Maritime Environment Protection Committee. There are 2 conditions for a resolution to be adopted

  1. Atleast one-third of the contracting governments should be present for voting. On this date, there are 174 countries that are members to the IMO. So for a resolution to be adopted, at least 58 countries should be present.
  2. At least two-third of the contracting governments present, should vote in favor of resolution. So if 60 countries were present, at least 40 countries should vote in favor of the resolution.

If the proposal to the amendment was made through the conference,

1) the first condition would be met considering there would be high chances of the one-third of the governments present for voting.

2) The second condition should also be met as all of the one-third governments had given the concurrence to the amendment.

This is the reason, the proposal by the conference would be adopted faster.

Acceptance of the resolution

A resolution once adopted, it is passed to all contracting governments for acceptance. The Secretary general communicates the adopted resolution to all contracting governments.

The process of acceptance of a resolution was a tedious one but IMO did a great job in amending the process itself.

Earlier the acceptance of a resolution was linked with the number of governments that has accepted it. IMO would wait for years to have the numbers on their side to implement a resolution.

This was due to many governments not responding because of “neither agree nor disagree” situation.

And the governments had their reasons to be in that situations. Most of the times the governments were not sure if

  1. the amendment brought by the resolution are in best interest of their country.
  2. If they can effectively implement the resolution
  3. if they have resources to implement the amendments and so on

Whatever the reasons, but the acceptance of resolutions used to take a lot of time.

IMO then introduced the tacit way of acceptance of a resolution. Even though not all the resolutions are accepted with tacit acceptance procedures but most of them are.

For example Marpol convention as per article 16 f(ii) gives authority to MEPC to decide if the amendment will be accepted by tacit acceptance or explicit acceptance.

The acceptance of a resolution to amend SOLAS convention is only done by tacit acceptance.

Tacit Acceptance of a resolution

In simple terms “tacit acceptance” means “accepted unless objected”. It is opposite of earlier process of “rejected unless accepted”.

Under tacit acceptance, a resolution is accepted on an agreed time interval from adoption unless it is objected by a number of contracting governments.

The committee decides the agreed interval during adoption of resolution. However there is minimum interval that is set in respective conventions.

For example as per Marpol convention, the minimum interval between adoption and acceptance has to be 10 months. Same way, as per SOLAS the minimum interval should not be less than one year.

SOLAS convention has also specified maximum interval between adoption and acceptance as 2 years.

How many number of government need to object for a resolution not to be accepted is also mentioned in respective conventions. These are usually

  1. one-third of the contracting governments or
  2. contracting governments that constitutes not less than 50% of the world gross tonnage

At the end of the deadline, if a contracting government has not taken any action (accepting or rejecting the proposed resolution), it is implied (tacit) that government has accepted the resolution.

 Entry in force of a resolution

Once a resolution is accepted by tacit means or otherwise, it then enter into force. But there is a time specified in respective conventions on when the accepted resolution would enter into force.

For example as per SOLAS and MARPOL convention, a resolution would enter into force 6 months after it has been accepted.

2. Convention

Now that we know how a resolution amends a maritime convention, Its time to take a dive into the what conventions actually are.

What is a convention

There are many different ways to define a convention. A convention is a formal agreement between states.

Or a convention is an instrument which is negotiated under an international organisation such as United Nations.

There are number of conventions that IMO has given to maritime industry. To Name a few, these are

  • International convention on safety of life at sea.
  • International convention on prevention of marine pollution
  • FAL convention
  • Loadline convention
  • Salvage convention

Convention is not a law

It is important to highlight that convention is not a law in itself. A convention becomes a law when it is implemented in a country’s own legal system.

SOLAS convention is not a law itself. But when a country adopts and includes it as legislation in their country, it becomes law for them. UK, Singapore and India have included it as legislation called Merchant Shipping act. USA call it CFR.

How a convention come in force

For a convention to come in force, it need to be adopted at IMO, ratified by the contracting governments and brought into force.

Proposal & Adoption of a convention

Typically an event, incident or a research study can trigger a need for a new convention. Incident of ‘Titanic’ triggered a need of SOLAS convention.

Incident of ‘Torrey Canyon’ triggered a need of MARPOL convention. And lately various research studies triggered the need of ballast convention.

Discussions on these incidents and research studies in shipping and other related industries is part of sessions of IMO committees and sub-committees.

Once IMO identifies a need for a new convention, the respective committee assisted by various sub-committees work on adopting the convention.

Ratification of the convention

Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval and accession are different ways in which a state (read country) can give their consent to be bound by the convention.

All these ways concerns the legality of procedure so we will not dig deep into it.

But the idea is that the states need to be ready for the new convention and they should give their consent for that by one of these ways. When a convention is adopted, it is usually agreed on how many states need to ratify the convention for it to come in force.

For example, the Ballast water convention requires at least 30 states to ratify which should represent at least 35% of the world gross tonnage.

Ballast water convention is just close to retification. On this date even though forty-seven countries have ratified the convention, their combined gross tonnage only represent the 34.56% of the world tonnage.

3. Circulars

There number of circulars issued at IMO by different committees and sub-committes. And these circulars divided into more than 50 subjects.

Circulars related to Salvage, SUA, Ballast water management, GMDSS and STCW all are part of the circulars issued at IMO. But the most important or rather the one that seafarers are more associated with are MSC and MEPC circulars.

These are the circulars issued by MSC and MEPC respectevely. The former being circulars related to safety matter and latter related to pollution.

What does Circulars are for

We all know what company circulars that we get onboard are for. It gives information / clarification on various subjects related to company’s SMS manual.

It may also give latest incident summary. In short it is running log of important communication from ship to shore.

IMO circulars serves similar purpose. Among other thing, the circular are used for clarification, interpretation or guidance on its various codes and conventions.

We can now looks into how MSC and MEPC circulars look like.

MSC Circulars

As obvious, MSC circulars are related to the maritime safety. The MSC has divided its circulars in six sub-categories and are numbered from one to six. Any MSC circular number would look like this

MSC Circular number

In this MSC ofcourse denotes that it is circular issued by Maritime safety committe of IMO.

The number 1 denotes the sub-category of the circular. ‘Circ.’ tells us that it is a circular and the number in the last is the circular number which is numbered in chronological order.

The six sub categories that MSC circulars are divided into are

  • MSC.1 : Circulars related to general information disseminated by MSC on safety matters
  • MSC.2 : Circulars related to MSC- Implementation of codes and recommendations adopted by the assembly
  • MSC.3 : Circulars on Illegal immigrants
  • MSC.4 : Circulars on piracy matters
  • MSC.5 : Circulars related to resolution 950(23) which is “Maritime assisstance services
  • MSC.6 : Other circulars related to safety

 MEPC Circular

Again as obvious, MEPC circulars are related to information on matters concerning maritime pollution. MEPC circulars are divided into seven sub-categories. These categories are numbered from one to seven. Any circular issued by MEPC would look like this

MEPC circular number

In this MEPC denotes that the circular is issued by Maritime environmenta protection committee.

The number next is the number of sub-category that the circular belongs to. The letters ‘Circ’ detones that it is a circular and finally the number is the circular number which is in chronological order.

The seven Sub-categories that MEPC circulars are divided into are

  • MEPC.1 : Circular relating to general information disseminated by the MEPC on pollution matters
  • MEPC.2 : Circular relating to Provisional categorization of liquid substances
  • MEPC.3 : Circular relating to Facilities in ports for the reception of oily wastes from ships
  • MEPC.4 : Circular relating to Facilities in ports for the reception of noxious liquid substances (NLS) residues from ships carrying chemicals in bulk
  • MEPC.5 : Circular relating to Pollution prevention equipment required by MARPOL
  • MEPC.6 : Circular relating to List of national operational contact point or points responsible for the receipt, transmission and processing of urgent reports on incidents involving harmful substances including oil from ships to coastal states
  • MEPC.7 : Circular relating to Maritime Environment Protection Committee on pollution matters

We have only discussed the MSC and MEPC circulars. But there are more than 50 categories in which IMO circular are divided.

Each category has again different sub-categories like we have for MSC and MEPC circulars.

Conclusion

Finally to conclude in short, IMO conventions are set of rules which when adopted by a country’s legal system, becomes law for that country.

There is a growing need to amend these conventions to keep pace with the fast moving world and technology. The conventions are amended by the IMO resolutions which are passed by the committees.

The committees also communicates the interpretation, guidance and clarifications for the conventions by the various time to time circulars.

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Capt Rajeev Jassal

About Capt Rajeev Jassal

Capt. Rajeev Jassal has sailed for over 19 years mainly on crude oil, product and chemical tankers. He holds MBA in shipping & Logistics degree from London. He has done extensive research on quantitatively measuring Safety culture onboard and safety climate ashore which he believes is the most important element for safer shipping.

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57 Comments

sandip
sandip
Apr 26, 2016

Can u throw more light on how circulars are issued by MEPC and is there any standard document which describes procedure and pre requisites for issuing a circular.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Apr 26, 2016

Thanks for you comment Sandip...MEPC receives lots of informations from different sources including flag states, session meetings etc. The applicable information need to be relayed to all flag states as well other stakeholders such as classification societies so that they can communicate same to the ships as well as other stakeholder in their Jurisdiction. These information are relayed through MEPC circulars. Which information requires to be communicated is discussed in the meetings of MEPC members at IMO and the pre-requisites if any for issuing a circular will be in MEPC internal documents/guidelines and I dont think that will be publicly available.

Nick
Nick
Sep 1, 2016

Can you please tell that Who decide that 30 or 40 or 50 state should ratify or this much % of world tonnage to ratify the convention , for the convention to enter in force? For a particular convention how this figures are decided and who decide this? Awaiting reply eagerly....Thanx

Harprit Singh
Harprit Singh
May 12, 2016

Thanks explaining basics like numbering system of circulars of Imo.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
May 13, 2016

Glad you liked it Harprit. Let me know if you have any question regarding any topic.

Nikhil Bhatt
Nikhil Bhatt
Jun 2, 2016

Thanks a lot for explaining all the topics that you have covered so far in your highly informative blog. Could you please also cover topics on practical sight calculation as these are not very well thought in the classrooms nor at sea we much carry out calculation due to hectic schedule of ships and ever growing traffic but this remains an important question for exams and practical use too.... thanks

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Jun 2, 2016

Happy that you found it informative Nikhil. Thanks for suggesting a topic and I will surely work on that.

Nick
Nick
Sep 1, 2016

Can you please tell that Who decide that 30 or 40 or 50 state should ratify or this much % of world tonnage to ratify the convention , for the convention to enter in force? For a particular convention how this figures are decided and who decide this? Awaiting reply eagerly....Thanx

Pravin
Pravin
Jun 30, 2016

Good notes and really appreciate also please put some light on marine insurance if you have time thanks and keep up the good work

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Jun 30, 2016

Thanks Pravin. Yes, I will surely write about marine insurance

melckzedeck
melckzedeck
Apr 10, 2017

I really want to know much more about insurance on shipping and maritime labour convention

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Apr 11, 2017

I will soon write on MLC...

Ali
Ali
Jul 23, 2016

I want to appreciate for your efficient essay and kindly ask to explain about the CODE's proposal procedure.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Jul 24, 2016

Thank you Ali for your kind words. Process of proposal of a Code is similar to the proposal of a convention. As I said in this article that a proposal can be initiated after a need is felt by IMO or its member states. A need for a code may arise after an major incident or after an major research. For example POLAR code was proposed because there was a need felt for it. This was because of increasing shipping traffic in POLAR region which was the result of melting ice that opened the route for shipping in this area.

ALI
ALI
Jul 27, 2016

Thanks for your kind reply.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Apr 11, 2017

Thanks Ali..

ziaudeen
ziaudeen
Aug 1, 2016

Thanks for the nice explanation. Can you please explain the legal difference between ratification,signature,acession,approval. As these are always confusing.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Aug 2, 2016

I am a country representative and I am presented few resolutions. I sign a proposed resolution. By signing I am only agreeing to discuss it with at my home country in the parliament. I am not legally bound by that signature. I go to my home country and discuss this in parliament and parliament accepts this to be included in the local laws. I have ratified the convention. Once the required number of states ratifies the convention, it comes in force. Once the convention is in force, another state (country) decides to be part of the convention and they discuss it in their parliament and agrees to make it a domestic law in their country. Since this convention is already ratified, the process will not be called ratification but it is called accession. The only difference between ratification and accession is that ratification is the act involved in conventions not yet ratified and accession is the act involved in the conventions already ratified.

ziaudeen
ziaudeen
Aug 13, 2016

Thanks for the clear reply. Can you please explain about M.S Act, M.S. Rule, M.S.Notice, M.S.Circular.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Aug 13, 2016

Yes sure Ziaudeen. I will write on these topics in near future..

Yingdi Gou
Yingdi Gou
Aug 2, 2016

Thanks a lot for the comprehensive interpretation. Could you further explain when a resolution need be made by the assembly but not the MSC/MEPC. And how ofen the assembly conference is held?

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Aug 4, 2016

Assembly's resolutions are mainly administrative in nature. But Assembly also brings resolutions related to safety and security. All IMO committees has set guidelines (guidelines documents are not available for viewing by public) and if some proposed resolution is out of those guidelines, assembly's node is required to pass that MSC/MEPC resolution. Assembly conference (called session) is held every 2 years. Last was 28th Session held in 2014.

Yingdi Gou
Yingdi Gou
Aug 5, 2016

I just read below article. What is the "sub-committee", what relationship btw it and MSC/MEPC? "Update from the 3rd session of the IMO Sub-Committee on Implementation of IMO Instruments (III 3) Published: 2016-08-02 The Sub-Committee met in London from 18 to 22 July 2016. ....."

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Aug 5, 2016

sub-Committees help committees to carry out their functions. MSC is a committee that looks after safety matters but safety is a large topic so each specialised committee help MSC with their work. For example Sub-committee on ship system and equipments helps both MSC and MEPC with providing detailed information on ship's equipment present or proposed for implementing their work. Same way, Sub-committee on navigation help MSC deal with navigation related issues.

Basavaraju
Basavaraju
Aug 6, 2016

very well explained with practical approach. My question is for appearing for class 1 exams is it necessary to refer or research so much in depth of all these topics.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Aug 9, 2016

For exams it may not be required to have in depth knowledge of these, but more the knowledge is no harm either..Thanks for reading and all the best for your exams Basavaraju..

Shreekant Sharma
Shreekant Sharma
Aug 6, 2016

WHat is the meaning of letter "E" on the right hand side corner of the circular ??

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Aug 9, 2016

I never thought about that Shreekant. Let me see if I can find that information for you..

Nick
Nick
Sep 1, 2016

Can you please tell that Who decide that 30 or 40 or 50 state should ratify or this much % of world tonnage to ratify the convention , for the convention to enter in force? For a particular convention how this figures are decided and who decide this? Awaiting reply eagerly....Thanx

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Sep 7, 2016

Hi Nick..It is decided when the protocol for the convention is drafted. The member states of the committee discuss all aspects of the draft convention including the criteria for the ratification / in-force process. The idea of identifying a number for the states and tonnage to ratify a convention for it to enter into force is to have a majority in every sense. If the convention is to enter into force by tacit acceptance, the required tonnage will be more (say more than 50%) and if the convention is to enter into force with actual consent of the states, the required tonnage is set at a lower percentage (like 35% in Ballast water convention).

Rahul
Rahul
Sep 4, 2016

Sir, I am confused with the definition of Protocol. Could you please explain what a protocol is?

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Sep 7, 2016

Protocol are the set of rules of conduct. These are the rules as to how each party is supposed to behave with respect to a convention. For example, protocol to SOLAS convention are the rules for all the parties detailing general obligation, how the amendments will be brought etc

James Victory
James Victory
Sep 17, 2016

sir, can you please illuminate me on the definition of the following terms--treaty, protocols, codes and memoradum of understanding relating to IMO.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Jan 28, 2017

Yes James, I am currently writing a blog on that and you will find it soon..

Sadat
Sadat
Jan 20, 2017

Sir, can u tell me a chemical tanker requied Clc insurance and if a big pollution occured, is it coverable by clc or need LOF

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Jan 28, 2017

No..A chemical tanker do not require CLC insurance as CLC is only for oil pollutions. But considering most of the chemical tankers are also designated to carry oil, you will find these ships to have CLC certificate. For chemical pollutions, HNS convention has been adopted by IMO but not yet ratified.

Nikola
Nikola
Jan 28, 2017

Sir, can you help me with understanding of meaning of circular. If the certain circular is adopted by the IMO committee is this circular automatically binding in the county, party of the convention with this circular is associated with. On the other hand, if certain circular is adopted in national legislation / rules regulating this matter, should we apply rule directly from circular or from the national rule which included requirements from circulat? Thank you!

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Jan 28, 2017

Circulars only clarifies rules. Circulars are released when IMO committees feels the need for better interpretation of any regulation. Circulars are not rules or regulation in itself. So Circulars do not need to be adopted or ratified.

Shivkumar Patil
Shivkumar Patil
Feb 9, 2017

Very nicely explained such useful topic. THANK YOU RAJIV SIR

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Feb 10, 2017

Glad you found it useful Shivkumar..

Devendra Nemade
Devendra Nemade
Feb 12, 2017

Excellent explanation , Keep it up sir ..

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Feb 13, 2017

Thank you Devendra..

Peyman
Peyman
Mar 6, 2017

Excellent explanation. Appreciated if you clarify the following; A.1021(26) adopted on 2 December 2009. It is not mandatory for all ships, isn’t it? Because acceptance still is pending In other word, it is mandatory only for the governments who gave positive vote for the resolution. Please clarify, Thanks!

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Mar 28, 2017

Ratification and not Adoption make it Mandatory. If it is just adopted and not ratified yet, it is not mandatory to anyone. Once ratified, it is mandatory to everyone, even those countries who opposed it but have ratified the convention for which this resolution is for.

Tariq
Tariq
Mar 20, 2017

Very informative and clearly defined stuff. Sir Capt Rajeev if you dont mind plz mail me your whatsapp number, i would like to ask some more qurries related to shipping, not this topic. Thank

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Mar 28, 2017

You can send the queries on the email however I would recommend to use our SEAQA section so that other mariners can also benefit from your questions..

krishna
krishna
Mar 24, 2017

thats a brilliant article sir, can you please throw some light upon how the resolutions of london convention and london protocol are passed. it would be of a great help

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Mar 28, 2017

The process of Ratification of london convention is same as with any other convention...

Manmohan
Manmohan
Apr 10, 2017

Sir,Is the proposal,adoption,acceptance of resolution is same as for convention. pls explain procedure for convention to come in force.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Apr 11, 2017

The procedure for proposal, adoption and acceptance of a resolution and that of a convention have many similarities. The difference is that while resolution can be accepted by "Tacit Acceptance" method, acceptance of a new convention is only after certain percentage of tonnage and certain number of flag states have ratified the convention by submitting the acceptance document to the IMO.

Mayur More
Mayur More
Apr 25, 2017

Sir thanks for making us understand the concept of convention and how to amend a convention. My doubt is , other than the two methods mentioned n the article about how to amend a convention, is there any other way to amend , is Protocol a way to amend a convention .I would appreciate if you could clear my doubt.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Apr 30, 2017

When a convention require any major change or a change that affects all the chapters, the change is brought by a Protocol. The process of ratification of protocol is kind of same as the process of ratification of a convention. A flag state may be party to the convention at the same time they may not ratify the protocol.

captain safey eldin salah
captain safey eldin salah
May 10, 2017

Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) NOT MEPC (for Maritime environment pollution committee). and by the way very important article nice work.

Aruna Liyanage
Aruna Liyanage
Jun 30, 2017

You have written very useful blogs in here. Can you please explain how classification societies react to new amendments to an existing convention? Do they implement as class rules?

Rajesh agashe
Rajesh agashe
Aug 19, 2017

Thanks rajeev Sir for nice and clearly explained.very informative and useful

Michael Gnanam
Michael Gnanam
Sep 27, 2017

Thank you so much for the much needed clarification. Given good insight into understanding the process involved / behind it. Absolutely useful and will share same

DUK-HWAN KANG
DUK-HWAN KANG
Oct 18, 2017

Thank you so much for the clarification. So, as I understand, respective circular adresses any changes or news on relavant codes or conventions. Resolution is made when any changes needed and made through the contract government. At this point what is mainly diffrence of them in terms of role? Appreciate if you could explain this.

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