IMO-convention-in-force

One thing that no seafarer can avoid is to not to deal with IMO conventions.

IMO conventions run the shipping trade.

Now try saying that ten times.

But seriously, without all these IMO conventions

  • there would be many more accidents
  • there would be much more pollution, and
  • there would be many more sub-standard ships

I say this even when I am of the opinion that few of the IMO conventions are poorly implemented in the industry.

But for we seafarers who are not maritime lawyers, the process of IMO conventions confuse us.

After all, there are so many terms associated with the IMO conventions.

Protocol, code, resolution, treaty, convention, circulars, amendments and much more.

Confusing right?

Well, I am not writing this post to define all these terms. I have already written on a couple of these terms in my earlier posts.

Few of these posts are here for quick reference.

But what I am here to discuss today is the process birth of an IMO convention and how and when it is amended.

Let us start.

Need for a new IMO conventions

Before we discuss anything about IMO conventions, we need to know who decides if a new IMO convention is required?

Let us think of few of the IMO conventions. What triggered the need for these conventions?

SOLAS: The sinking of Titanic and loss of more than1500 people triggered the need of a convention that could look into the safety issues. That led to the formation of SOLAS convention.

MARPOL: Grounding and oil pollution from oil tanker Torrey Canyon alerted the world to the dangers of oil tankers. This incident and many other oil pollution incidents in mid 60’s led to MARPOL convention.

what-led-to-IMO-conventions

ISM: The sinking of Herald of free enterprise highlighted the issue of “Human error” and IMO responded with the introduction of ISM code.

Ballast water convention: Various studies found that when ballast water is a dangerous source of the relocation of many organisms in water. If suitable conditions exist in this release environment, these species will survive and reproduce and become invasive species.

In many cases, these organisms can become a dominant species by the extinction of native species.  That can have negative effects on public health and industries that rely on this water.

Ballast-water-convention

We can see from these conventions that whenever a weak link is identified in the shipping trade, IMO brings a convention to address that.

The weak link can be identified either

  • by a major shipping incident or a trend of smaller incidents
  • by a major research work

Even the enhanced survey programme was introduced as a result series of loss of the bulk carriers because of structural failures.

Bottom line is that whenever IMO finds any weak link, it responds with either bringing a new convention or amendments to the existing convention.

How a new IMO convention enters into force?

When the IMO identifies a need for a new convention, it starts the process of bringing it into force.

But bringing a new convention into force is not so easy.

The mere fact that the ballast water convention entered into force after 13 years of its adoption would suggest how hard it may be for the IMO to bring a new convention into force.

ballast-water-convention

Entry into force of an IMO convention is a lengthy process. And it starts with a suggestion from one of the members in the session of the committee. This is followed by a process to create a draft convention.

1. Draft convention

The session of the committee is held every 6 months. Based on the information and research, any member state can propose the need for a new convention.

If satisfied with the merits of the proposal, the committee will forward the proposal to council or assembly as required.

If the Council or Assembly accepts the proposal, it would authorize the committee to proceed with the work.

The committee will then work on this proposal in detail and will draw a draft convention.

This draft convention is then sent to the Council and the Assembly. At this point, the committee would also recommend the Council and Assembly for a conference for the adoption of the convention.

2. Adoption of the convention

The Council or the Assembly would set a date for the conference for the adoption of the convention and communicate this date to all the member states.

The draft convention is also circulated to all the member states for their comments. The committee examines the comments (if any) from the various member states to amend the draft convention before the conference.

In the conference, the amended draft convention is presented to the member states.

Once the majority of the member states present agree with the final draft of the convention, it is formally considered adopted.

The adopted convention is then sent to the Secretary General of the IMO who sends the copies to all the member states.

IMO-convention-process

3. Ratification of the convention

An adopted convention is still not binding on the member states. The convention needs to be ratified.

The required conditions for this adopted convention to be considered ratified are pre-agreed during the drafting process.

These conditions are in one of the articles of the adopted convention.

For example, Article 18 of the Ballast water convention has set the conditions for entry into force of the convention as

The convention will enter into force 12 months after ratification by a minimum of 30 States, representing 35 percent of world merchant shipping tonnage.

Entry-into-force-of-IMO-convention

How many states and how much tonnage percentage for ratification is decided by the committee and agreed by the member states during the adoption process.

Generally, the stricter convention would require more number of states and tonnage to ratify the convention for its entry into force.

4. Entry into force for the convention

A convention would enter into force when a minimum number of member states accepts it.

But how do a member state can tell the IMO that they accept an adopted convention?

There are few ways.

How-a-state-ratifies-the-IMO-convention

By Signature

If the convention allows, the most formal way of showing the acceptance of the convention is by a simple signature.

In this method, the representative of the member state signs on the sheet provided by the IMO.

The member states can also sign with a remark such as

signed subject to ratification, acceptance or approval

This would mean that the state wants to sign the convention but it must first be accepted or approved by the parliament of their own state.

IMO allows a certain period to the member state for showing their acceptance to the convention by signature.

By Ratification

If a member state has signed the convention subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, this member state would not be considered to have shown its consent for the convention.

This means that IMO would still not consider this state as the one which has ratified the convention.

This member state is required to deposit a document called “instrument of ratification” to the depository of the convention.

In simple terms, the depository is the department which keeps the track of member states that have ratified the convention.

By Accession

IMO sets a time frame (say, 12 months after adoption) for the acceptance of the convention by signature.

After this time frame is over, the member states can show their consent by accession.

Accession is the method used by a State to become a party to a treaty which it did not sign whilst the treaty was open for signature.

A member state is considered to have become the party to the convention when it deposits the “instrument of accession” to the depository of the convention.

For example, Ballast water convention was to enter into force 12 months after ratification by a minimum of 30 States, representing 35 percent of world merchant shipping tonnage.

As of Jan 2016, the convention was ratified by more than 30 states but it still was short of 35% of world shipping tonnage.

In September 2016, when Finland submitted the “Instrument of accession” to the IMO the conditions required for the ratification of Ballast water convention were met.

finland-instrument-of-accession

Following the accession by Finland, the ballast water convention entered into force on 04th Sept 2017.

5. Implementing the Convention

After the convention has been ratified by the required number of states with the required total tonnage, it would enter into force after a pre-defined time.

For ballast water convention, this time was set at 12 months after ratifications of the convention.

This time is used to prepare for the implementation of the convention.

The member states which have ratified the convention need to include the convention in their country’s law.

This means that the state needs to amend their “merchant shipping act” (if that is what this law is called in that country).

When the convention finally enters into force, the countries that have ratified the convention would have the provisions of the convention included in the country’s local laws.

This way the convention becomes legally binding on the ships that fly the flag of the contracting states to the convention.

How is an IMO convention amended?

A convention that is relevant today may require some changes for it to be relevant after few years.

IMO not only works to bring new conventions but also continuously works on improving the existing conventions.

This may require the existing conventions to be amended.

Broadly there are two ways a convention can be amended.

  • By a resolution to the convention
  • By a protocol to the convention

ways-to-amend-an-IMO-convention

1. Amendments by resolution

There are two ways to initiate the process of amendment by passing a resolution.

  • By consideration within the IMO
  • By Conference of the contracting states

By consideration within the IMO

Let us look at the stages of process of amendments of a convention by consideration within the IMO.

Proposal

The proposal for amendments of a convention can be initiated by any contracting states. The proposal is made to the secreatary general of the IMO

The SG would pass the amendment proposal to MSC or MEPC for review.

MSC or MEPC would draft the resolution and submit the resolution for adoption.

draft-amendments-to-convention

Adoption of resolution

Once MSC or MEPC have the draft of the resolution, these are forwarded for adoption.

Resolutions are adopted by voting in Maritime safety committee or Maritime Environment Protection Committee.

For successful adoption of the resolution

  • At least one-third of the contracting governments should be present for voting.
  • At least two-third of the contracting governments present should vote in favor of the resolution.

Voting-process-for-amendment-to-IMO-convention

Acceptance of resolution

The adoption process requires the presence of only one-third (at least) of the contracting states. But for acceptance of the resolution, the majority of the states need to agree on the resolution.

The most common way of acceptance of a resolution is “tacit acceptance”.

As per the “tacit acceptance”, it is implied (assumed) that a contracting state has accepted the resolution if it does not oppose it within a particular time frame after the adoption.

The conditions of the acceptance of a resolution are provided in one of the articles of the original convention itself.

2. Amendment by Conference

In this way, a group of at least one-third of the contracting governments need to propose the amendment to the relevant committee of the IMO.

The committee would then call for a conference of all the contracting states for that convention for the adoption of the proposed amendment.

amendment-of-IMO-convention-by-conference

The process of adoption and acceptance is similar to what we discussed earlier under “amendment by consideration within the IMO”.

This is the fastest way to bring an amendment to a convention.

Why?

Check out the two conditions for the adoption of an amendment.

1. At least one-third of the contracting states must be present for voting.

As one-third of the contracting states have proposed the amendment, they all would most certainly be present for voting.

2. At least two-third of the contracting governments present should vote in favor of resolution

Even if all the contracting states were present for voting, the one-third are already sure of voting in favor of the amendment.

3. Amendment by Protocol

The protocol is not exactly an amendment. It is a convention within a convention.

Sometimes a change is required in the convention that is too significant to be amended by a resolution.

Few example of these significant changes can be

  • a change that is applicable to the all the chapters of the convention.
  • A change to include a new area in the convention (for example inclusion of Annex VI in the Marpol)
  • the entire convention needs to be reworked.

MARPOL-amendment-by-protocol

Protocol to the convention brings major changes to the convention.

The states that had ratified the original convention may not accept the protocol to the convention.

For this reason, the protocol to a convention enters into force in the same way as a convention would have.

This means that a particular number of states with the certain percentage of world’s tonnage need to ratify the protocol for it to “enter in force”.

Even when a protocol enters into force, it will only be binding to the countries that have ratified the protocol. It will not be binding on all the contracting states to the original convention.

status-of-IMO-convention

As you can see that out of 163 countries that ratified the SOLAS convention, 43 countries still have not ratified the 1978 protocol to the SOLAS convention.

And 53 countries that ratified the SOLAS convention have till date have not ratified the 1988 protocol to the SOLAS convention.

Conclusion

Among many other things, IMO’s work include creating new and amending existing conventions to help ships face the challenges at the sea.

As seafarers, to understand the signficance of these conventions we must understand how these conventions are brought and how these conventions are amended.

Related Blogs

Follow us Today on
our social network

Capt Rajeev Jassal

About Capt Rajeev Jassal

Capt. Rajeev Jassal has sailed for over 20 years mainly on crude oil, product and chemical tankers. He holds MBA in shipping & Logistics degree from London. He has done extensive research on quantitatively measuring Safety culture onboard and safety climate ashore which he believes is the most important element for safer shipping.

Search Blog

41 Comments

Mikee
Mikee
Aug 8, 2017

Good read Capt! Been reading your blogs recently and learning a lot, keep it up sir & thank you for sharing!

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Aug 9, 2017

Glad you are finding these useful Mikee...

Gautam Kumar
Gautam Kumar
Oct 5, 2017

Sir good day . My self Gautam Kumar . I am NCV master. I had passed my ORAL yesterday only. I just can not stop my self writing to you . Sir I was much confused before studying blogs of yours on IMO 's process of getting Resolution adopted and there are various other things (Especially P & I club , Marpol Annex IV , etc) , Sir I had studies on other sites also but your blogs have more clarity and best part is your examples (case study ). However the read content were not been asked in my orals part but they all were very informative . Thank you very much for making available such a good platform. Appreciated if some blogs related NCV (Indian Coast Trading , Manning of NCV Vessel , Coastal Navigation etc) also followed in your next blogs.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Nov 19, 2017

Glad you found it useful Gautam...I will write on suggested topics in near future...

Amit Tomar
Amit Tomar
Jan 24, 2018

Well, this is so useful, I am preparing for MEO Class I.... the concept was given in so many books but beautifully explained here in your blog.

Raymond PC Karlsen
Raymond PC Karlsen
Jun 1, 2018

Very good, easy to read explanation on some of the workings of the IMO. Well done!

Prem
Prem
Jun 5, 2018

Thank you very much sir Very easy to understand Found it very useful

Harshaka M
Harshaka M
Jun 7, 2018

Thank you very much sir Very easy to understand Found it very useful. sir can you explain with a flow chart how IMO structure is made. how many member states currently... likewise...

Shailendra Rajawat
Shailendra Rajawat
Aug 11, 2018

excellent sir

Wolfgang
Wolfgang
Apr 7, 2019

This gave a clear picture, thank you captain! Could you shed some light on the countries not ratifieng a protocol, if I understand correctly it means that MARPOL annex 1&2 are mandatory, the others are not since they didn't exist in the original convention?

Vinod Bhange
Vinod Bhange
Jun 6, 2019

Thank sir for writing in such simple way to understand the laws Can explain or write about EEDI in simple way to understand about it?

Ilyas
Ilyas
Aug 12, 2019

Thank u sir exelent

Tarun
Tarun
Sep 14, 2019

Nicely done flow-charts sir. Intend to use them in exams

Atanu Ghosh
Atanu Ghosh
Nov 2, 2019

Thank you sir for the post.

Amit Pal
Amit Pal
Dec 1, 2019

Sir, This is an excellent article. I was very confused before going through your article and now the subject is very clear to me. Many many thanks for writing such articles. Thank you so much Sir.

Amit Pal
Amit Pal
Dec 1, 2019

Sir, This is an excellent article. I was very confused before going through your article and now the subject is very clear to me. Many many thanks for writing such articles. Thank you so much Sir.

Saif
Saif
May 10, 2020

Hello sir, Reading your full article I have 2 questions . 1. What does percentage of world tonnage mean. 2. What will happen if any country does not retify or accpet any Conventio. Will be very grateful if could clarifymy doubt. Thank you

R ARUN PRASAD
R ARUN PRASAD
May 27, 2020

Hello Sir, thank you very much for sharing your knowledge with us, the clarity of article is fabulous . please continue your great work .

Arpan Mishra
Arpan Mishra
Aug 5, 2020

Hello Sir, This is a great article, you cleared my all doubts regarding IMO machinery. I am preparing for MEO class IV. I know this is beyond the scope of my subject, but yet again this was very helpful. Thank you

BIPLAB BJSWAS
BIPLAB BJSWAS
Sep 13, 2020

Very good description sir...

Lode Mortier
Lode Mortier
Jan 13, 2021

Good day Captain Jassal, Just went over your article and have found it immensely intresting and relevant for a course I'm giving at the Georgian College in Ontario, Canada. The vulgarising way you explain these very often complicated things will be greatly appreciated by my students. Thank you very much and keep up the good work. Lode

micheal pan
micheal pan
Jun 22, 2021

BE SMART AND BECOME RICH IN LESS THAN 3DAYS....It all depends on how fast  you can be to get the new PROGRAMMED blank ATM card that is capable of hacking into any ATM machine,anywhere in the world. I got to know about  this BLANK ATM CARD when I was searching for job online about a month  ago..It has really changed my life for good and now I can say I'm rich and  I can never be poor again. The least money I get in a day with it is about  $50,000.(fifty thousand USD) Every now and then I keeping pumping money  into my account. Though is illegal,there is no risk of being caught  ,because it has been programmed in such a way that it is not traceable,it  also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTVs to detect  you..For details on how to get yours today, email the hackers on : ( atmmachinehackers1@gmail.com ). Tell your  loved once too, and start to live large. That's the simple testimony of how  my life changed for good...Love you all ...the email address again is ; atmmachinehackers1@gmail.com

Caillo Lisa
Caillo Lisa
Jun 22, 2021

This is another testimony on how Chief Dr Lucky cured my HIV disease. Do you need a cure for your HIV disease? Do you want to be cured from your cancer disease? Or you want to be free from any type of disease. Kindly visit his website https://chiefdrluckyherbaltherapy.wordpress.com/ . He just cured my HIV disease and I’m very grateful to him, he is the only herbalist that can cure you.   WhatsApp number : +2348132777335  Via Email : chiefdrlucky@gmail.com Thank you all for reading, God bless"

KETINA BARLEY
KETINA BARLEY
Jun 28, 2021

I want to say thanks once again to this great man called Dr Zuma and his spiritual way of helping people i lives in USA with my husband we love each other and also he care about me always look forward to make things easy for both of us 9 years after our wedding, we both work harder to make a family greatest surprise, we have a kid after some times again, we have another one so with this, we live in peace and he was so honest to me shortly, he started misbehaving that i don’t know what is going on then i asked him. Darling what is going on? you are so strange to me this few days hope i have not offended you? he said no. Not knowing he have an affair with one lady out side who promised him a car and apartment in one estate were i cannot see him also when he cannot see me i manage to stay with him pleading him he should forgive me if i have wrong him he started complaining he has no money that he has lost all his money in his business that he needs some money then i asked him how much is this money you are looking for? he did not know i can afford it. Then, he said $14,000USD i promised him i we give it to him just for him to care about his family. My greatest surprise, the next day, i went to work and our two kids were in school not knowing his going to leave the house before i come’s back i met some of his things outside i was waiting for him to come back he never come back i cried i miss him so much and he have taking all my money away i was only left with $800USD. One day, as i was ready a blog i saw a testifier made by someone in Australia called Jessica telling people about how this man call Dr Zuma helped her and the man’s contact email was there and his mobile number then i contacted him for a help and really, he brought back my husband now am so happy my brothers and sister if you are in such relationship problem kindly via Email spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com or Whatsapp +15068001647 Blog: https://spiritualherbal.blogspot.com he will help you solve all your problems.

Jessica Smith
Jessica Smith
Jul 13, 2021

After being in relationship with Wilson for seven years,he broke up with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that don’t believed in spell, I had no choice than to try it, I meant a spell caster called Dr Zuma zuk and I email him, and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before three days, that my ex will return to me before three days, he cast the spell and surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there. Anybody could need the help of the spell caster, his email: spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com or WhatsApp him +15068001647 blog: spiritualherbal.blogspot.com you can email him if you need his assistance in your relationship or anything. CONTACT HIM NOW FOR SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PROBLEMS

Mrs. Santana Valdez
Mrs. Santana Valdez
Aug 3, 2021

i am giving this testimony cos l am happy My name is Mrs. Santana Valdez from Houston,taxes.i never believed in love spells or magic until i met this spell caster once. when i went to Canada in June 28th 2021 this year on a business summit. i meet a man called Dr Zuma zuk.He is powerful he could help you cast a spells to bring back my love's gone, misbehaving lover looking for some one to love you, bring back lost money and magic money spell or spell for a good job. i'm now happy & a living testimony cos the man i had wanted to marry left me 3 weeks before our wedding and my life was upside down cos our relationship has been on for 2 years. i really loved him, but his mother was against me and he had no good paying job. so when i met this spell caster, i told him what happened and explained the situation of things to him.. at first i was undecided, skeptical and doubtful, but i just gave it a try. and in 6 days when i returned to taxes, my boyfriend (is now my husband ) he called me by himself and came to me apologizing that everything had been settled with his mom and family and he got a new job interview so we should get married..i didn't believe it cos the spell caster only asked for my name and my boyfriends name and all i wanted him to do. well we are happily married now and we are expecting our little kid, and my husband also got a new job and our lives became much better. in case anyone needs the spell caster for some help, email address spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com Great Zuma zuk i thank you very much thank you in 1000000 times.. if not you i would have been losted and wasted thank you. Email Him Through his email address... spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com please make sure you contact him for any financial difficulties okay...What a powerful man such as Dr Zuma zuk.. he is so much powerful..\\ email him for any difficulties.. spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com His whatsapp +15068001647

safety equipment supply
safety equipment supply
Aug 20, 2021

Fremont provides the best Safety Equipment Supply in UAE. Safety first should be the motto of our company

Arifuzzaman
Arifuzzaman
Sep 19, 2021

Hello sir, Very useful article as i will appear Class-II written exam next month. Thank you. For exam purpose one more article i need to know. Kindly would u like to discuss about- " The provision and its importance towards entry into force of the Convention " I would be very grateful if the above topic describes. Thanks.

Sreejith Vijayan
Sreejith Vijayan
Dec 5, 2021

Extremely helpful in understanding the topic completely. Explained well in simple language which is as simple as possible. Thank you and Kudos.

Sorina Jeffery
Sorina Jeffery
Dec 10, 2021

Are you looking for Finance? Are you looking for fast cash to enlarge your business Interested people should please contact us reply to us (Whats App) number: +919394133968 patialalegitimate515@gmail.com Mr Sorina

Karen09
Karen09
Jan 1, 2022

Hi everyone, my name is Karen! Top Secret Way To Win Lottery With The Help Of A Magic spell caster called Dr. Okosisi. I requested a lottery spell, and he cast the spell and sent me the winning lottery number. Now I am a proud lottery winner with the help of Dr. Okosisi. I won $1,000,000.00 ( One Million Dollars) Thank you so much sir for dedicating your time to cast the Lottery spell for me. I am extremely grateful for the Lottery spell you did for me. You can contact him now for your own winning numbers. Website: https://spellservicetemple.com/faq/ Email: spellservicetemple@gmail.com WhatsApp him: +1 (901) 235-9551 Karen

Luna Quezada
Luna Quezada
Jan 14, 2022

My wife of 4 years broke up with me because I was broke but I never told her I was playing the lottery because I wanted to surprise her whenever I win a huge amount. I was so heart broken and I decided to seek help from friends and family before I saw a post of RUTH BREEN about a man called LORD ZAKUZA saying how he helped her win a lottery worth ONE MILLION DOLLARS. I contacted Lord Zakuza via WhatsApp  +1 740-573-9483 and explained my situation to him. He spoke to me like a father and told me he was going to prepare a spell for me to get my wife back and also give me numbers & where to play the lottery. I did everything he asked of me and within 48 hours, my wife came back to me seeking forgiveness and I was called 4 days after that I was the winner of 383 MILLION DOLLARS from the lottery I played. I have never seen such a miracle in my life. No matter what you are going through, there's always a solution. For more info, WhatsApp: +1 740-573-9483 or Email: lordzakuza7 @ gmail . com or visit his website: https://lordzakuzaspells.com

willam fred
willam fred
Feb 13, 2022

I saw some testimonies about this herbal specialist called @drmosesbuba and decided to email him so I gave his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he get back to me and we discussed, he gave me some comforting words and encouraged me also and then gave me his herbs and cream for Penis Enlargement Within 1 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, " and now it just 2 weeks of using his products my penis is about 10 inches longer and am so happy today. Contact @drmosesbuba for any problem via WhatsApp +2349060529305 or email buba.herbalmiraclemedicine@gmail.com Thanks doctor Moses

Ted Cubitt
Ted Cubitt
Mar 2, 2022

PERFECT LOTTERY SPELL THAT WORK FAST WITHIN 24 HOURS WITH Dr Ayoba LOTTERY SPELL POWE I saw so many testimonies about Dr Ayoba a great lottery spell caster that will help you cast a lottery spell and give you the rightful numbers to win the lottery, I didn't believe it, at first but as life got harder i decided to take a try, I contacted him also and told him I want to win a lottery he cast a lottery spell for me which I use and I play and I won $6,000,000 (Six MILLION DOLLARS). I am so grateful to this man Dr Ayoba and I are making this known to everyone out there who have been trying all day to win the lottery, believe me this is the only way to win the lottery, this is the real secret we all have been searching for. Do not waste time contact him today for you to also be a winner contact info below. Email: drayobasolutionhome@gmail.com WhatsApp: ‪+1 (708) 736‑1766

DeAndre
DeAndre
May 17, 2022

Good day everybody. I’m here to share a testimony of how Dr. Kumar helped me to win the lottery. Words are not enough to thank him for the great thing he has done for me, he has really changed my life for good. I have been playing the lottery for years now and I have never won a big money before, i got so tired of it until I decided to look for ways to improve my chances of winning and I saw a testimony online of how Dr. Kumar has helped a lot of people to win the lottery by casting spells.. I quickly contacted him on the email that was present on one of the comments and explained my problem to him in which he cast a spell on my winning numbers and gave them to me to play and behold I won the sum of (72,000,000 USD). I’m a happy man now and i am totally grateful to Dr Kumar for what he did for me.If you need his help to win the lottery, you can contact him on email: spellcasttemple@gmail.com or WhatsApp +1(330)5363918

Richard22
Richard22
Jun 1, 2022

Hi Viewers Get your Blank ATM card that works in all ATM machines all over the world.. We have specially programmed ATM cards that can be used to hack ATM machines, the ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe at stores and POS. We sell this cards to all interested buyers worldwide, the card has a daily withdrawal limit of $10,000 on ATM and up to $50,000 spending limit in stores depending on the kind of card you order for, and also if you are in need of any other cyber hack services, contact OFFICIAL ONLINE HACKERS On WhatsApp:. +1 437 703 3498 Email :: officialhackers52@gmail.com Website:https://officialhackers52.wixsite.com/website

Dexter Tamara
Dexter Tamara
Jun 2, 2022

My mom was suffering from Type 2 diabetes and Lupus for over 17yrs. She tried many drugs but at last became dependent on saferoom and metformin due to the weakness and constant pains, She found that life was just sinking & there was no way of hope. Then she consulted Chief Dr Lucky for herbal treatments, Which she had been hearing so much about, After some couple of days taking this herbal medicine, Things started to change, The symptoms started to decrease and after 19 days of taking it, She became healthy and fully free from all the symptoms of Type 2 diabetes and Lupus. My mom's life is totally different now. That's why I decided to let everybody know about the wonderful healing of Chief Dr Lucky herbal, If you are having any health challenges kindly visit email chiefdrlucky@gmail.com or WhatsApp +2348132777335 Facebook page http://facebook.com/chiefdrlucky Website https://chiefdrlucky.com/.

SCOTT WYCOFF
SCOTT WYCOFF
Jun 14, 2022

Hi, did you know there are spells to win love back from an ex. I have done it. I love reading about relationships and how to make them work, how to better the relationship, and how to keep the spark alive, even how to talk to them a certain way to get them to think a different way about the situation and you. If you need advice or want to win your ex back, try DR EMU copy and message on the following ( Email: emutemple@gmail.com ) or ( WhatsApp: +2347012841542 ) It will change your mentality and get you what you want. Facebook page Https://web.facebook.com/Emu-Temple- 104891335203341

fred
fred
Jun 16, 2022

I never thought it was possible to recover stolen cryptocurrency due to my past experience trying to recover $228k that was stolen from my usdt w.a.l.l.e.t; until I read an article on this webpage http://www.thedailychargeback.com , I summited all documents needed to carryout the recovery operation, they successfully recover $205k from what I lost, I advice anyone having problems with lost or stolen cryptocurrency issues to reach to them.

magret
magret
Jun 16, 2022

I recently recovered back about 145k worth of Usdt from greedy and scam broker with the help of Mr Koven Gray a binary recovery specialist, I am very happy reaching out to him for help, he gave me some words of encouragement and told me not to worry, few weeks later I was very surprise of getting my lost fund in my account after losing all hope, he is really a blessing to this generation, and this is why I’m going to recommend him to everyone out there ready to recover back their lost of stolen asset in binary option trade. Contact him now via email at kovengray64@gmail.com or WhatsApp +1 218 296 6064.

Jassi
Jassi
5 hours ago

Hi everyone my name is jassic i want to share my amazing testimony on how Dr HERRY blessed my life, i have been playing lottery game for long now and i don’t usually win, i came across a testimony of someone testifying about how Dr HERRY prayed for him and gave him a lottery game to play and he won big amount of money, so i also decided to try my luck, i contact him through his website and he assured me that he will help me, he told me it will take him 24 hours to pray for me, so on the after the 24 hours he gave me some lottery numbers to play and i went to play the game so on that faithful day i went to check the game to my greatest surprise i won a very big amount $434.2 million that changed my life and my status, i quit working as a sale girl in the supper market and i became a business owner. I want you out there to also contact him for your lucky game. You can reach him via his info below.https://www.facebook.com/DrHerry-102339232327182/ or Whatsapp +2347045451476 or drherry189@gmail.com

Leave Comment