Every year IMO brings numerous updates to the way we run our ships.

And every year, ship owners, ship managers, seafarers, and everyone else have to scramble to catch up with these updates.

One such area that has seen many updates from IMO is the “air pollution“.

Since 2005, IMO has been working on to gradually reduce the SOx emission from the ships.


It was desired to eventually come down to permitting the fuel with maximum sulphur content of 0.5%.

Come 01st January 2020, the long wait will finally be over.

But many see this as a challenge to comply with this change.

And many shipowners expect that the IMO would shift 01st Jan 2020 deadline to a date beyond that.

However, IMO has clarified that there would not be any extension to this deadline. So the 01st Jan 2020 deadline to comply with new SOx requirements would remain.


And to deal with this challenge, ship owners and managers need to devise the perfect strategy quickly.

In this blog, we will discuss about the challenges and options available to the ship owners and ship managers.

But first, let us get a clear picture of what the IMO requirement really is.

IMO Sulpher 2020

MARPOL Annex VI, Regulation 14 deals with the requirements related to the SOx emission.

Here is what regulation 14 states.

The sulphur content of any fuel oil used on board ships shall not exceed the following limits:

  • 4.50% m/m prior to 1 January 2012;
  • 3.50% m/m on and after 1 January 2012; and
  • 0.50% m/m on and after 1 January 2020

IMO 2020 sulphur limits

The requirements for the emission control area are more stringent but for the scope of this article, we will not discuss the emission control areas.

Presently the ships are allowed to use fuel with maximum sulphur content of 3.5% m/m.

This limit will be reduced to 0.50% on and after 01 January 2020.

Regulation 4 brings the confusion

So why do we have so much of confusion around this change.

Well, whenever we have choices we would have confusion.

For example, I want to upgrade my apple watch to series 4 released a few days back, but I am confused.

I am confused because there is Aluminium case version and there is a stainless steel version. And then there are color options in each of these versions.

Whenever we have a choice, we will have confusion about the better option for us.

For compliance with the requirements of SOx emission, the confusion is created by the regulation 4 that allows the alternative.

Here is what regulation 4 of Marpol Annex VI states:

The Administration of a Party may allow any fitting, material, appliance or apparatus to be fitted in a ship or other procedures, alternative fuel oils, or compliance methods used as an alternative to that required by this Annex if such fitting, material, appliance or apparatus or other procedures, alternative fuel oils, or compliance methods are at least as effective in terms of emissions reductions as that required by this Annex, including any of the standards set forth in regulations 13 and 14.

What are the Alternatives?

Regulation 4 allows the use of alternatives for complying with regulation 13 and 14.

So let us understand the available alternatives with respect to compliance with SOx requirements.

Broadly there are three options.

  • Use of fuel containing less than 0.50% m/m of sulphur
  • Use of alternative fuel such as LNG
  • Use of exhaust gas cleaning system (also commonly called scrubber)


Let us understand each of these options.

Use of fuel containing less than 0.50% m/m of sulphur

This is probably the easiest option.

Easiest because this option hardly requires any modification on the ships.

Ship owners just need to make sure that fuel of less than 0.50% m/m sulphur is supplied to the ships.

But that is where the challenge lies.

Challenge 1: Fuel Availability

Few ship owners are worried about the availability of the low sulphur fuel. They have valid reasons for that.

As per Robin Meech, the demand for the MDO fuel with sulphur content less than 0.50% m/m will increase drastically post 2020.


And there are concerns about how much of this demand can be fulfilled by the bunker suppliers.

IMO is actively working on to resolve this issue.

As an initial step, IMO has urged all the states that are party to Marpol Annex VI to report the availability of 2020 compliant fuels.

But estimating the future fuel availability will be anything but easy for anyone.

Challenge 2: Costs

As the demand for fuel with less than 0.50% m/m would increase after 2020, the price for this fuel may increase too.

Ship owners need to take into account this factor while deciding their approach to handle the approaching change in MARPOL Annex VI.

Challenge 3: Fuel quality

While the Ultra-low sulphur fuel oil is good for the environment, it has its own operational challenges.

If the desired sulphur content is achieved by mixing of two different types of fuel oils, the resultant fuel though low on sulphur content may be unstable.


The use of unstable fuel oil may lead to clogged filters, damage to piston, piston rings and cylinder liners to name a few.

Low sulphur fuels offer less lubricity. Crew need to be aware of this and may need additional precautions to deal with it.

Low sulphur fuel could also have a higher amount of cat fines. This would expose the engine for damages if specific precautions for higher cat fines are not taken.

Use of alternative fuels such as LNG

LNG as a marine fuel is considered to be the future of the maritime industry.

There are two factors that make LNG an attractive option for marine fuel.

One, because LNG complies with the SOx requirements of the Marpol Annex VI, both global and in ECA.

And second, because LNG is considered a low-cost fuel.

Also since LNG is a cleaner fuel, the engines using LNG as fuel would require less maintenance compared to other fuels.

However, at present, there are two major drawbacks with the LNG fuel.

  • The availability of LNG fuel and
  • The lacking skills & knowledge of the stakeholders for LNG bunkering.

Availability of LNG has been a major concern for ship owners.

So ship’s operation area and routes and availability of LNG in these areas need to be considered when deciding to choose LNG as a marine fuel.


Furthermore, LNG bunkering and use of LNG as fuel is still a newer concept and not many seafarers have used this system.

This adds complexity and demands need for well-trained crew for handling LNG as fuel.

But the situation is improving in favor of LNG fuel.

It is expected that the number of LNG bunkering vessels would double by 2020.

As per MPA Singapore, Singapore will be ready for 2020 as it has expanded LNG bunkering group.

Use of the Exhaust gas cleaning system

This is probably the most debated option for compliance with the IMO 2020 SOx requirements.

With this option, the vessel continues to use the high sulphur fuel and an exhaust gas cleaning system fitted on board cleans the exhaust gas to reduce the SOx and CO2 emissions.

The compliance with using low sulpher fuel is easy. We just need to use the fuel with the desired minimum sulpher content.

But there needs to be a way to ensure compliance when we are not concerned about the actual sulpher content but with the sulpher content in the gases being emitted.

So how does it ensure compliance?

IMO has provided the values to measure in the cleaned exhaust gas to demonstrate the compliance with SOx emissions as per Marpol Annex VI.

The compliance is demonstrated on the basis of SO2(PPM) / CO2 (%v/v) ratio values.

fuel sulpher vs emission values

So the scrubbers fitted on board for compliance with SOx requirements need to achieve these values.

But still, the question remains unanswered.

How do ship staff demonstrate compliance with scrubber fitted on board?

Resolution MEPC 259(68) provides complete guidance on this subject.

And there are two methods.

  • Scheme A
  • Scheme B

These two methods are quite similar to how the ship staff demonstrates the compliance with NOx criteria of the Marpol Annex VI.

Under Scheme A it is assumed that if the scrubber unit is fitted and maintained as per the maker’s guidelines, it would continue to comply with the initial test values.

So under scheme A, the compliance is based on verifying that the EGC unit is maintained in accordance with the guidelines provided.

Under scheme B, the actual measurement of gases being emitted is done.

But that is not all.

Ship staff also need to provide documentary evidence to demonstrate compliance with Marpol Annex VI in case scrubbers is fitted onboard.

These documents are

  • SECP: SOx emission Compliance plan
  • SECC: SOx emission compliance certificate
  • ETM: EGC system technical manual
  • OMM: Onboard monitoring Manual
  • ERB: EGC record Book (or electronic logging system)

1.SECC: SOx emission compliance certificate

The scrubber manufacturer will provide the emission values that the scrubber unit will be able to achieve with the fuel of different sulphur content.

Off course these values need to be such that compliance with the requirements under Marpol Annex VI.

These values need to be certified and approved by the flag state.

Each scrubber (EGC) unit meeting the requirements will be issued with a certificate called SECC (SOx emission compliance certificate).

Ship staff needs to make sure that this certificate is available onboard.

Usually, classification society will certify these units on behalf of the flag states.

2. SECP: SOx emission Compliance plan

If the ship uses scrubbers for the compliance with Marpol Annex VI, the ship needs to be provided with SOx emission Compliance plan.

SECP need to be approved by the flag state of the ship.

SECP will provide

  • the complete details of the EGC unit fitted onboard
  • Instructions to ensure compliance with Marpol Annex VI with the use of EGC unit
  • Details of all the equipments that the EGC unit is connected to or not connected to.

The approved SOx emission Compliance plan need to be onboard the vessels fitted with a scrubber unit.

3. ETM: EGC system technical manual

As the name suggests, this manual contains all the technical information about the EGC unit fitted on board.

At the minimum, the ETM would include

  • The identification of the EGC unit
  • The operating limits, or range of operating values for which the unit is certified
  • Any requirement or restrictions applicable to the EGC unit
  • Corrective actions of EGC unit does not operate as desired

The EGC technical manual need to be approved by the flag state of the vessel.

4. OMM: Onboard monitoring Manual

Onboard monitoring manual provides the details of all the sensors fitted in the EGC unit that is used to evaluate the performance of EGC unit.

The monitoring manual provides

  • the position of such sensors or points from where the measurements are being taken
  • The service, maintenance and calibration requirements of these sensors
  • Calibration procedures for these sensors
  • Any other data or information for the correct functioning of the sensors and system.

The onboard monitoring manual also needs to be approved by the flag state of the vessel.

5. ERB: EGC record Book (or electronic logging system)

We have already discussed scheme A and scheme B for demonstrating compliance.

Under scheme A, the scrubber unit is considered to be complying if it is maintained as per the manufacturer’s guidelines.

One important element in such a method of compliance is that any spare replacement needs to be done with the exact same type of spare.

In other words, the spare that would require replacement need to be replaced by same spare and not any other alternatives.

To ensure that an EGC record book needs to be maintained where all the details of spare replacement and maintenance on EGC unit need to be recorded.

Under scheme B, the direct measurement of emission gases is done.

In this case, EGC record book needs to be used to record the daily spot checks of the parameters listed in the technical manual.

Pros and cons for Exhaust gas cleaning system

One thing that attracts the shipowners for use of exhaust gas cleaning system is that the ships fitted with EGCS can continue to use high sulphur fuel oil.

This fuel is available worldwide and will continue to be so. This means that ship owners do not need to worry about the availability of fuel.

But this option too has some challenges.

Challenge 1: Fitting of exhaust gas cleaning system

For the new ships, it may be easier for the shipowners to design and then build the ships with EGC system installed.

But it may not be easy to retrofit the EGC unit on older ships.

The first challenge is to find the space in the engine room for the fitting of the exhaust gas cleaning system.


Challenge 2: Cost-effectiveness

The cost-effectiveness of the scrubber system depends upon the price difference between the HSFO and LSFO.

The estimated cost of retrofitting an exhaust gas cleaning system could be between USD 2-10 million depending upon the size of the ship.

These costs would only be justified if there is a significant price difference between HSFO and LSFO.

But what if in the future the price difference between these two fuel types is minimal.

That is where the challenge lies for the shipowners.

Predicting the cost-effectiveness of the EGC system is a challenge for the ship owners.

While making a decision about fitting an exhaust gas cleaning system for 2020 sulphur compliance, ship owners need to take a call on its cost-effectiveness.

Many ships are choosing scrubbers for IMO 2020 compliance.

As of 31 May 2018, 983 vessels have been installed with an exhaust gas cleaning system.


A study by IMO has found that EGCs will be cost effective for the majority of the ships with engines over 20MW.

The same study found that below 5MW, EGCs are often only cost-effective for new buildings, if at all, at the assumed fuel prices.

So far so that the Odfjell believes that the scrubbers don’t make sense for IMO 2020 compliance.


IMO 2020 is the buzzword these days.

Every shipowner is trying to devise a strategy to deal with the new SOx requirements that will be effective from 01st January 2020 which is not far.

And broadly there are three options that they need to choose from.

  • Use of low sulphur fuel
  • Use of alternate fuel such as LNG, and
  • fitting of exhaust gas cleaning system (also call scrubbers)

Each option has its own pros and cons.

While the Low sulphur fuel is expensive, it would require any changes in existing ship’s equipments.

LNG fuel could save shipowners some money but its availability remains a concern at least for now. Moreover, the expertise in handling LNG fuel and its bunkering is still lacking.

Fitting of exhaust gas cleaning unit allows to continue use of HSFO but retro-fitting this on existing ships would be a challenge.

Moreover, its cost-effectiveness needs to be considered as it would mainly depend upon the price difference between HSFO and LSFO.

Different shipowners would prefer different options depending upon the trade of their vessels.

For example, as per Maersk CEO, Low Sulphur Fuel is the best solution for 2020 sulphur cap.

And as per Robin Meech, A third of total bunkers in 2025 may be high sulfur fuel oil being scrubbed.

It remains to be seen how shipowners would respond to this fast approaching challenge.

Related Blogs

Follow us Today on
our social network

Capt Rajeev Jassal

About Capt Rajeev Jassal

Capt. Rajeev Jassal has sailed for over 19 years mainly on crude oil, product and chemical tankers. He holds MBA in shipping & Logistics degree from London. He has done extensive research on quantitatively measuring Safety culture onboard and safety climate ashore which he believes is the most important element for safer shipping.

Search Blog


Dec 15, 2018

Excellent explanations. Cleared many doubts reg. 2020 sulphur cap. Thank you.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Dec 17, 2018

Glad you found it useful Murugadasan...

Rana Singh
Rana Singh
Dec 21, 2018

Sir, Very much informative appreciate in tons

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Jan 1, 2019

Thanks Rana...

Jan 4, 2019

Thank you captain , I am very satisfied with the article but could you please inform the Sulphur percentage for ECAs from 1st Jan 2020

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Jan 21, 2019

In ECA ships continued today use fuel with maximum sulphur content 0.10% m/m as is being done since 01st Jan 2015. There is no change in that post 01st Jan 2020.

Jan 20, 2019

vry well xplained sir. What will be sox content in SECA after 2020

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Jan 21, 2019

In ECA ships continued today use fuel with maximum sulphur content 0.10% m/m as is being done since 01st Jan 2015. There is no change in that post 01st Jan 2020.

Marlon Cataquis
Marlon Cataquis
Jan 25, 2019

Thank you for a very clear explanation. Reading your blogs will be part of my Daily Routine. All the best to you and your team.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Feb 13, 2019

Thanks Malon...

Alok Singh
Alok Singh
Jan 29, 2019

How I wish that books were written in such a comprehensive yet simple manner.Thanx a ton for all the blogs here sir.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Feb 13, 2019

Thanks Alok...

Feb 5, 2019

Thank you aloooot VGP please and all requirement of visiting USWater

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Feb 13, 2019

Thanks Waleed.. will write on VGP...

Rajesh Fernandes
Rajesh Fernandes
Feb 15, 2019

Excellent article. Very well explained. Loved it

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Feb 16, 2019

Glad you liked it Rajesh...

Satpal Chandhar
Satpal Chandhar
May 25, 2019

Thank you very much sir for clear and easy explaination of the subject. A great help.

Capt .Girish Devrani
Capt .Girish Devrani
Jun 14, 2019

Excellent article . Very well explained . Kudos to you and your team for all the efforts .

Vasu Kainth
Vasu Kainth
Jul 4, 2019

Thank you sir, I am preparing for ASM... Your site is really helpful

Uday K
Uday K
Aug 14, 2019

Well informative. LSHFO availability & what viscosity ?

Prakash Tendulkar
Prakash Tendulkar
Dec 3, 2019

Information well presented and a great guide to Chief Engineers!

Jack Tson Calli
Jack Tson Calli
Mar 13, 2020

Thank you and such well explained. Great job.

Amar anand
Amar anand
Apr 2, 2020

great article sir......we are more greedy now...want more and more articles .....

stella andre
stella andre
Feb 7, 2021

***PLEASE READ*** From the bottom of my heart, I can never thank you enough DR.BALBOSA for the wonderful work you did for me and my kids to bring back my husband. Am stella Andre from England. I was having serious relationship problems with my husband and he was no longer committed to me and our kids, when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce and  i was so heart broken, i cried all day and night, it had resulted in him moving out to his friend’s apartment. Everything got worse because he started going to bars and strip clubs frequently with his friend, getting drunk and passing out. He always threatens me on the phone whenever I call him because of all the bad advice that his friend has given him. I really love him and we had been married for 8 years which gave us a beautiful daughter and a son. I had also lost a lot of money on therapists until I was introduced to DR. BALBOSA by a friend whom he helped to marry her childhood boyfriend, this gave me total confidence and strength to get him back. I did all that DR. BALBOSA asked me to do it and I also followed all instructions given to me by DR. BALBOSA to my greatest surprise after 48 hours my husband called me and rushed back home with a brown new car for me and our kids... things just changed between us emotionally, I was the happiest woman on earth that day. my husband now has a good job and stopped drinking and he stopped keeping irrelevant friends. It’s a miracle I never believed was possible because I had lost all hope until I found DR. him today and get your love back i can assure you .... contact him on his Email on: and his WEBSITE ON: also CALL/ WHATSAPP: +2347048047728...BYE...

ashely griffth
ashely griffth
Feb 18, 2021

Dr.Mamudu the best spell caster online restore my broken relationship and i highly recommends Dr.Mamudu to anyone in need of help! My husband left me for another woman 3 months ago and ever since then my life have been filled with pains sorrow and heart break because he was my first love whom i have spent my entire life with. A friend of mine told me he saw some testimonies of a spell caster called Dr Mamudu that he can bring back lover within some few days, i laugh it out and said i am not interested but because of the love my friend had for me, she consulted the great priest on my behalf and to my greatest surprise after 2 days my husband called me for the very first time after three months that he is missing me and that he is so sorry for every thing he made me went through.He came back to me and now we are happy together. I still can’t believe it, because it highly unbelievable. Thank you Dr.Mamudu for bringing back my lover and also to my lovely friend who interceded on my behalf, for any one who might need the help of this great priest here is the email address: drmamudu47@gmail. com , you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2348143284524

Anderson Dolce
Anderson Dolce
Mar 10, 2021

Hello everyone, Are you looking for a professional trader, forex and binary manager who will help you trade and manager your account with good and massive amount of profit in return. you can contact MR. CARLOS ELLISON for your investment plan, for he helped me earned 12,000usd with little investment funds. Carlos Ellison you're the best trader I can recommend for anyone who wants to invest and trade with a genuine trader, he also helps in recovery of loss can contact him on his Email: Via whatsapp: (+12166263236) I advice you shouldn't hesitate. He's great.

Amanda Hollis
Amanda Hollis
Apr 17, 2021

My 23,000 euros loan has just been granted, thank you very much LAPO MICRO FINANCE . I will talk about your services with people around me who need a loan or financial assistance because I am impressed by your quick response .if you need a loan Do not hesitate to contact a real legal lender with 100% guarantee : E-mail: Whatsapp +447868753778

Edward  Dillinger
Edward Dillinger
Apr 30, 2021

I am so happy investing with TD Ameritrade.. He has really helped after I lost my job. I started investing as little as $200 and now I earn over $2,500 weekly. So happy you can contact him on his Email: Via whatsapp: (+12166263236)

Edward  Dillinger
Edward Dillinger
Apr 30, 2021

I am so happy investing with TD Ameritrade.. He has really helped after I lost my job. I started investing as little as $200 and now I earn over $2,500 weekly. So happy you can contact him on his Email: Via whatsapp: (+12166263236)

Justin Riley
Justin Riley
Apr 30, 2021

HOW I GOT MY DESIRED LOAN AMOUNT FROM A RELIABLE AND TRUSTED LOAN COMPANY LAST WEEK Email for immediate response: Call/Text: +1(646)820-1981 Whatsapp +19292227023 Visit their website and believe yourself Company Website: Hello everyone, My name is Mr.Justin Riley, I'm from United States, I'm here to testify of how i got my loan from CAPITAL MANAGEMENTS INC ( after i applied Two times from various loan lenders who claimed to be lenders right here this forum,i thought their lending where real and i applied but they never gave me loan until a friend of mine introduce me to {Dr.Benjamin Scarlet Owen} the C.E.O of CAPITAL MANAGEMENTS INC who promised to help me with a loan of my desire and he really did as he promised without any form of delay, I never thought there are still reliable loan lenders until i met {Dr.Benjamin Scarlet Owen}, who really helped me with my loan and changed my life for the better. I don't know if you are in need of an urgent loan also, So feel free to contact Dr.Benjamin Scarlet Owen on his email address: CAPITAL MANAGEMENTS INC holds all of the information about how to obtain money quickly and painlessly via Whatsapp +19292227023 Email: And consider all your financial problems tackled and solved. Share this to help a soul right now, Thanks Visit their website and believe yourself Company Website:

samuel bricks
samuel bricks
May 21, 2021

I was thrown out of my own house was sleeping in a hotel for weeks she also took possession of my son could only see him once a week then I found out she was in love with my accountant all these while so I went online and I came across a Russian private investigator who help me get all my properties and my accounts back even my company back how he did these I don’t know but I gave all the information he asked for and followed all his instructions and now I’m happy my life’s better now. Thanks to HACKINTECHNOLOGY@CYBERSERVICES.COM I just said I should share my own story here Thank you

alexander castro
alexander castro
May 22, 2021

Do you know that you can hack any ATM machine !!! We have specially programmed ATM cards that can be used to hack any ATM machine, this ATM cards can be used to withdraw cash at the ATM or swipe, stores and outlets. We sell this cards to all our customers and interested buyers worldwide, the cards has a daily withdrawal limit of 5000 in ATM and up to 100,000 spending limit in it stores. We also offer the following services: 1)WESTERN UNION TRANSFERS/MONEY GRAM TRANSFER 2)BANKS LOGINS 3)BANKS TRANSFERS 4)CRYPTOCURRENCY MINING 5)BUYING OF GIFT CARDS 6)LOADING OF ACCOUNTS 7)WALMART TRANSFERS 8)BITCOIN INVESTMENTS 9)REMOVING OF NAME FROM DEBIT RECORD AND CRIMINAL RECORD 10)BANK HACKING  Becoming wealthy and living the lifestyle of the rich and famous is the dream of many people. And whilst most people go to work or seek other ethical methods of making money online.  The blank ATM withdraws money from any ATM machines and there is no name on it because it is blank just your PIN will be on it, it is not traceable and now I have money for business, shopping and enough money for me and my family to live on.  PROGRAMMED blank ATM card that is capable of hacking into any ATM machine,anywhere in the world.   Contact Person: Prof Alexander Castro   E-Mail:   E-Mail:

Dr, Benjamin Owen
Dr, Benjamin Owen
Jun 1, 2021

AFFORDABLE/COMFORTABLE LOAN OFFER WITHOUT COST/STRESS CONTACT US VIA Call/Text +1(646)820-1981 WhatsApp: +19292227023 Email Loan Company Website: Do you find yourself in a bit of trouble with unpaid bills and don’t know which way to go or where to turn? What about finding a reputable Debt Consolidation firm that can assist you in reducing monthly installment so that you will have affordable repayment options as well as room to breathe when it comes to the end of the month and bills need to get paid? ®Capital Managements Inc™ is the solution to your financial misfortune. We offer all types of loan ranging from $5,000.00 to $533,000,000.00USD with a low interest rate of 2% and loan duration of 1 to 35 years to pay back the loan secure and unsecured. Our loans are well insured for maximum security is our priority, Our leading goal is to help you get the services you deserve, Our program is the quickest way to get what you need in a snap. Kindly reduce your payments to ease the strain on your monthly expenses by Contacting us on the following WhatsApp:+19292227023 Email Loan Offer Alert For Everyone! Are you financially down and you need an urgent credit/financial assistance? Or are you in need of a loan to start-up/increase your business or buy your dream house. GET YOUR INSTANT LOAN APPROVAL 100% GUARANTEED TODAY NO MATTER YOUR CREDIT SCORE. Capital Managements Inc Website:

Jun 18, 2021

HEY GUYS,.. Joy Allen is my name…. Am so happy to be here, and letting you all know how my life was changed for good, I read a post online about an ATM hacking card which i also give it a try,And i received it from the hacker called Mr Frank last week and now I have $150,000 for free. The blank ATM withdraws money from any ATM machines and there is no name on it, it is not traceable and now i have money for business and enough money for me and my family to live on .I am really happy i met Mr Frank who transformed my life and that of my family, After he has finished preparing the ATM he then now send the card through shipment to me, friends you can order for your on atm hacking today he is giving it out for a low price to help people even if it is illegal but it helps a lot and no one ever gets caught. i am grateful to Mr Frank because he changed my story all of a sudden . The card works in all countries except. mr Frank email address: website:;

Timothy Dale
Timothy Dale
Jun 20, 2021

PERFECT LOTTERY SPELL THAT WORK FAST WITHIN 24 HOURS WITH DR RAYPOWER LOTTERY SPELL POWERS I saw so many testimonies about Dr Raypower a great lottery spell caster that will help you cast a lottery spell and give you the rightful numbers to win the lottery, i didn't believe it, at first but as life got harder i decided to take a try,  I contacted him also and told him i want to win a lottery he cast a lottery spell for me which i use and i play and i won $3,000,000 (THREE MILLION DOLLARS). I am so grateful to this man Dr Raypower and I am making this known to everyone out there who have been trying all day to win the lottery, believe me this is the only way to win the lottery, this is the real secret we all have been searching for. Do not waste time contact him today for you to also be a winner contact info below. Email: or WhatsApp: +1 (424) 330-8109 Website:

micheal pan
micheal pan
Jun 22, 2021

BE SMART AND BECOME RICH IN LESS THAN 3DAYS....It all depends on how fast  you can be to get the new PROGRAMMED blank ATM card that is capable of hacking into any ATM machine,anywhere in the world. I got to know about  this BLANK ATM CARD when I was searching for job online about a month  ago..It has really changed my life for good and now I can say I'm rich and  I can never be poor again. The least money I get in a day with it is about  $50,000.(fifty thousand USD) Every now and then I keeping pumping money  into my account. Though is illegal,there is no risk of being caught  ,because it has been programmed in such a way that it is not traceable,it  also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTVs to detect  you..For details on how to get yours today, email the hackers on : ( ). Tell your  loved once too, and start to live large. That's the simple testimony of how  my life changed for good...Love you all ...the email address again is ;

Caillo Lisa
Caillo Lisa
Jun 22, 2021

This is another testimony on how Chief Dr Lucky cured my HIV disease. Do you need a cure for your HIV disease? Do you want to be cured from your cancer disease? Or you want to be free from any type of disease. Kindly visit his website . He just cured my HIV disease and I’m very grateful to him, he is the only herbalist that can cure you.   WhatsApp number : +2348132777335  Via Email : Thank you all for reading, God bless"

Leave Comment