IMO-sulpher-2020

Every year IMO brings numerous updates to the way we run our ships.

And every year, ship owners, ship managers, seafarers, and everyone else have to scramble to catch up with these updates.

One such area that has seen many updates from IMO is the “air pollution“.

Since 2005, IMO has been working on to gradually reduce the SOx emission from the ships.

IMO-sulphur-limits-regulation-Maropol-annex-VI

It was desired to eventually come down to permitting the fuel with maximum sulphur content of 0.5%.

Come 01st January 2020, the long wait will finally be over.

But many see this as a challenge to comply with this change.

And many shipowners expect that the IMO would shift 01st Jan 2020 deadline to a date beyond that.

However, IMO has clarified that there would not be any extension to this deadline. So the 01st Jan 2020 deadline to comply with new SOx requirements would remain.

can-IMO-2020-be-delayed-IMO

And to deal with this challenge, ship owners and managers need to devise the perfect strategy quickly.

In this blog, we will discuss about the challenges and options available to the ship owners and ship managers.

But first, let us get a clear picture of what the IMO requirement really is.

IMO Sulpher 2020

MARPOL Annex VI, Regulation 14 deals with the requirements related to the SOx emission.

Here is what regulation 14 states.

The sulphur content of any fuel oil used on board ships shall not exceed the following limits:

  • 4.50% m/m prior to 1 January 2012;
  • 3.50% m/m on and after 1 January 2012; and
  • 0.50% m/m on and after 1 January 2020

IMO 2020 sulphur limits

The requirements for the emission control area are more stringent but for the scope of this article, we will not discuss the emission control areas.

Presently the ships are allowed to use fuel with maximum sulphur content of 3.5% m/m.

This limit will be reduced to 0.50% on and after 01 January 2020.

Regulation 4 brings the confusion

So why do we have so much of confusion around this change.

Well, whenever we have choices we would have confusion.

For example, I want to upgrade my apple watch to series 4 released a few days back, but I am confused.

I am confused because there is Aluminium case version and there is a stainless steel version. And then there are color options in each of these versions.

Whenever we have a choice, we will have confusion about the better option for us.

For compliance with the requirements of SOx emission, the confusion is created by the regulation 4 that allows the alternative.

Here is what regulation 4 of Marpol Annex VI states:

The Administration of a Party may allow any fitting, material, appliance or apparatus to be fitted in a ship or other procedures, alternative fuel oils, or compliance methods used as an alternative to that required by this Annex if such fitting, material, appliance or apparatus or other procedures, alternative fuel oils, or compliance methods are at least as effective in terms of emissions reductions as that required by this Annex, including any of the standards set forth in regulations 13 and 14.

What are the Alternatives?

Regulation 4 allows the use of alternatives for complying with regulation 13 and 14.

So let us understand the available alternatives with respect to compliance with SOx requirements.

Broadly there are three options.

  • Use of fuel containing less than 0.50% m/m of sulphur
  • Use of alternative fuel such as LNG
  • Use of exhaust gas cleaning system (also commonly called scrubber)

IMO-2020-options

Let us understand each of these options.

Use of fuel containing less than 0.50% m/m of sulphur

This is probably the easiest option.

Easiest because this option hardly requires any modification on the ships.

Ship owners just need to make sure that fuel of less than 0.50% m/m sulphur is supplied to the ships.

But that is where the challenge lies.

Challenge 1: Fuel Availability

Few ship owners are worried about the availability of the low sulphur fuel. They have valid reasons for that.

As per Robin Meech, the demand for the MDO fuel with sulphur content less than 0.50% m/m will increase drastically post 2020.

marine-fuel-demand

And there are concerns about how much of this demand can be fulfilled by the bunker suppliers.

IMO is actively working on to resolve this issue.

As an initial step, IMO has urged all the states that are party to Marpol Annex VI to report the availability of 2020 compliant fuels.

But estimating the future fuel availability will be anything but easy for anyone.

Challenge 2: Costs

As the demand for fuel with less than 0.50% m/m would increase after 2020, the price for this fuel may increase too.

Ship owners need to take into account this factor while deciding their approach to handle the approaching change in MARPOL Annex VI.

Challenge 3: Fuel quality

While the Ultra-low sulphur fuel oil is good for the environment, it has its own operational challenges.

If the desired sulphur content is achieved by mixing of two different types of fuel oils, the resultant fuel though low on sulphur content may be unstable.

IMO-2020-use-of-low-sulphur-fuel

The use of unstable fuel oil may lead to clogged filters, damage to piston, piston rings and cylinder liners to name a few.

Low sulphur fuels offer less lubricity. Crew need to be aware of this and may need additional precautions to deal with it.

Low sulphur fuel could also have a higher amount of cat fines. This would expose the engine for damages if specific precautions for higher cat fines are not taken.

Use of alternative fuels such as LNG

LNG as a marine fuel is considered to be the future of the maritime industry.

There are two factors that make LNG an attractive option for marine fuel.

One, because LNG complies with the SOx requirements of the Marpol Annex VI, both global and in ECA.

And second, because LNG is considered a low-cost fuel.

Also since LNG is a cleaner fuel, the engines using LNG as fuel would require less maintenance compared to other fuels.

However, at present, there are two major drawbacks with the LNG fuel.

  • The availability of LNG fuel and
  • The lacking skills & knowledge of the stakeholders for LNG bunkering.

Availability of LNG has been a major concern for ship owners.

So ship’s operation area and routes and availability of LNG in these areas need to be considered when deciding to choose LNG as a marine fuel.

IMO-2020-use-of-LNG-fuel

Furthermore, LNG bunkering and use of LNG as fuel is still a newer concept and not many seafarers have used this system.

This adds complexity and demands need for well-trained crew for handling LNG as fuel.

But the situation is improving in favor of LNG fuel.

It is expected that the number of LNG bunkering vessels would double by 2020.

As per MPA Singapore, Singapore will be ready for 2020 as it has expanded LNG bunkering group.

Use of the Exhaust gas cleaning system

This is probably the most debated option for compliance with the IMO 2020 SOx requirements.

With this option, the vessel continues to use the high sulphur fuel and an exhaust gas cleaning system fitted on board cleans the exhaust gas to reduce the SOx and CO2 emissions.

The compliance with using low sulpher fuel is easy. We just need to use the fuel with the desired minimum sulpher content.

But there needs to be a way to ensure compliance when we are not concerned about the actual sulpher content but with the sulpher content in the gases being emitted.

So how does it ensure compliance?

IMO has provided the values to measure in the cleaned exhaust gas to demonstrate the compliance with SOx emissions as per Marpol Annex VI.

The compliance is demonstrated on the basis of SO2(PPM) / CO2 (%v/v) ratio values.

fuel sulpher vs emission values

So the scrubbers fitted on board for compliance with SOx requirements need to achieve these values.

But still, the question remains unanswered.

How do ship staff demonstrate compliance with scrubber fitted on board?

Resolution MEPC 259(68) provides complete guidance on this subject.

And there are two methods.

  • Scheme A
  • Scheme B

These two methods are quite similar to how the ship staff demonstrates the compliance with NOx criteria of the Marpol Annex VI.

Under Scheme A it is assumed that if the scrubber unit is fitted and maintained as per the maker’s guidelines, it would continue to comply with the initial test values.

So under scheme A, the compliance is based on verifying that the EGC unit is maintained in accordance with the guidelines provided.

Under scheme B, the actual measurement of gases being emitted is done.

But that is not all.

Ship staff also need to provide documentary evidence to demonstrate compliance with Marpol Annex VI in case scrubbers is fitted onboard.

These documents are

  • SECP: SOx emission Compliance plan
  • SECC: SOx emission compliance certificate
  • ETM: EGC system technical manual
  • OMM: Onboard monitoring Manual
  • ERB: EGC record Book (or electronic logging system)

1.SECC: SOx emission compliance certificate

The scrubber manufacturer will provide the emission values that the scrubber unit will be able to achieve with the fuel of different sulphur content.

Off course these values need to be such that compliance with the requirements under Marpol Annex VI.

These values need to be certified and approved by the flag state.

Each scrubber (EGC) unit meeting the requirements will be issued with a certificate called SECC (SOx emission compliance certificate).

Ship staff needs to make sure that this certificate is available onboard.

Usually, classification society will certify these units on behalf of the flag states.

2. SECP: SOx emission Compliance plan

If the ship uses scrubbers for the compliance with Marpol Annex VI, the ship needs to be provided with SOx emission Compliance plan.

SECP need to be approved by the flag state of the ship.

SECP will provide

  • the complete details of the EGC unit fitted onboard
  • Instructions to ensure compliance with Marpol Annex VI with the use of EGC unit
  • Details of all the equipments that the EGC unit is connected to or not connected to.

The approved SOx emission Compliance plan need to be onboard the vessels fitted with a scrubber unit.

3. ETM: EGC system technical manual

As the name suggests, this manual contains all the technical information about the EGC unit fitted on board.

At the minimum, the ETM would include

  • The identification of the EGC unit
  • The operating limits, or range of operating values for which the unit is certified
  • Any requirement or restrictions applicable to the EGC unit
  • Corrective actions of EGC unit does not operate as desired

The EGC technical manual need to be approved by the flag state of the vessel.

4. OMM: Onboard monitoring Manual

Onboard monitoring manual provides the details of all the sensors fitted in the EGC unit that is used to evaluate the performance of EGC unit.

The monitoring manual provides

  • the position of such sensors or points from where the measurements are being taken
  • The service, maintenance and calibration requirements of these sensors
  • Calibration procedures for these sensors
  • Any other data or information for the correct functioning of the sensors and system.

The onboard monitoring manual also needs to be approved by the flag state of the vessel.

5. ERB: EGC record Book (or electronic logging system)

We have already discussed scheme A and scheme B for demonstrating compliance.

Under scheme A, the scrubber unit is considered to be complying if it is maintained as per the manufacturer’s guidelines.

One important element in such a method of compliance is that any spare replacement needs to be done with the exact same type of spare.

In other words, the spare that would require replacement need to be replaced by same spare and not any other alternatives.

To ensure that an EGC record book needs to be maintained where all the details of spare replacement and maintenance on EGC unit need to be recorded.

Under scheme B, the direct measurement of emission gases is done.

In this case, EGC record book needs to be used to record the daily spot checks of the parameters listed in the technical manual.

Pros and cons for Exhaust gas cleaning system

One thing that attracts the shipowners for use of exhaust gas cleaning system is that the ships fitted with EGCS can continue to use high sulphur fuel oil.

This fuel is available worldwide and will continue to be so. This means that ship owners do not need to worry about the availability of fuel.

But this option too has some challenges.

Challenge 1: Fitting of exhaust gas cleaning system

For the new ships, it may be easier for the shipowners to design and then build the ships with EGC system installed.

But it may not be easy to retrofit the EGC unit on older ships.

The first challenge is to find the space in the engine room for the fitting of the exhaust gas cleaning system.

IMO-2020-use-of-scrubber

Challenge 2: Cost-effectiveness

The cost-effectiveness of the scrubber system depends upon the price difference between the HSFO and LSFO.

The estimated cost of retrofitting an exhaust gas cleaning system could be between USD 2-10 million depending upon the size of the ship.

These costs would only be justified if there is a significant price difference between HSFO and LSFO.

But what if in the future the price difference between these two fuel types is minimal.

That is where the challenge lies for the shipowners.

Predicting the cost-effectiveness of the EGC system is a challenge for the ship owners.

While making a decision about fitting an exhaust gas cleaning system for 2020 sulphur compliance, ship owners need to take a call on its cost-effectiveness.

Many ships are choosing scrubbers for IMO 2020 compliance.

As of 31 May 2018, 983 vessels have been installed with an exhaust gas cleaning system.

EGCSA-scrubber-fitted-on-ships-may-2018

A study by IMO has found that EGCs will be cost effective for the majority of the ships with engines over 20MW.

The same study found that below 5MW, EGCs are often only cost-effective for new buildings, if at all, at the assumed fuel prices.

So far so that the Odfjell believes that the scrubbers don’t make sense for IMO 2020 compliance.

Conclusion

IMO 2020 is the buzzword these days.

Every shipowner is trying to devise a strategy to deal with the new SOx requirements that will be effective from 01st January 2020 which is not far.

And broadly there are three options that they need to choose from.

  • Use of low sulphur fuel
  • Use of alternate fuel such as LNG, and
  • fitting of exhaust gas cleaning system (also call scrubbers)

Each option has its own pros and cons.

While the Low sulphur fuel is expensive, it would require any changes in existing ship’s equipments.

LNG fuel could save shipowners some money but its availability remains a concern at least for now. Moreover, the expertise in handling LNG fuel and its bunkering is still lacking.

Fitting of exhaust gas cleaning unit allows to continue use of HSFO but retro-fitting this on existing ships would be a challenge.

Moreover, its cost-effectiveness needs to be considered as it would mainly depend upon the price difference between HSFO and LSFO.

Different shipowners would prefer different options depending upon the trade of their vessels.

For example, as per Maersk CEO, Low Sulphur Fuel is the best solution for 2020 sulphur cap.

And as per Robin Meech, A third of total bunkers in 2025 may be high sulfur fuel oil being scrubbed.

It remains to be seen how shipowners would respond to this fast approaching challenge.

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Capt Rajeev Jassal

About Capt Rajeev Jassal

Capt. Rajeev Jassal has sailed for over 19 years mainly on crude oil, product and chemical tankers. He holds MBA in shipping & Logistics degree from London. He has done extensive research on quantitatively measuring Safety culture onboard and safety climate ashore which he believes is the most important element for safer shipping.

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61 Comments

MURUGADASAN M
MURUGADASAN M
Dec 15, 2018

Excellent explanations. Cleared many doubts reg. 2020 sulphur cap. Thank you.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Dec 17, 2018

Glad you found it useful Murugadasan...

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Rana Singh
Rana Singh
Dec 21, 2018

Sir, Very much informative appreciate in tons

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Jan 1, 2019

Thanks Rana...

Vihanga
Vihanga
Jan 4, 2019

Thank you captain , I am very satisfied with the article but could you please inform the Sulphur percentage for ECAs from 1st Jan 2020

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Jan 21, 2019

In ECA ships continued today use fuel with maximum sulphur content 0.10% m/m as is being done since 01st Jan 2015. There is no change in that post 01st Jan 2020.

deepak
deepak
Jan 20, 2019

vry well xplained sir. What will be sox content in SECA after 2020

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Jan 21, 2019

In ECA ships continued today use fuel with maximum sulphur content 0.10% m/m as is being done since 01st Jan 2015. There is no change in that post 01st Jan 2020.

Marlon Cataquis
Marlon Cataquis
Jan 25, 2019

Thank you for a very clear explanation. Reading your blogs will be part of my Daily Routine. All the best to you and your team.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Feb 13, 2019

Thanks Malon...

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Jan 29, 2019

How I wish that books were written in such a comprehensive yet simple manner.Thanx a ton for all the blogs here sir.

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Feb 13, 2019

Thanks Alok...

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Rajesh Fernandes
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Feb 15, 2019

Excellent article. Very well explained. Loved it

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Feb 16, 2019

Glad you liked it Rajesh...

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May 25, 2019

Thank you very much sir for clear and easy explaination of the subject. A great help.

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Excellent article . Very well explained . Kudos to you and your team for all the efforts .

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Well informative. LSHFO availability & what viscosity ?

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Information well presented and a great guide to Chief Engineers!

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Caillo Lisa
Caillo Lisa
Jun 22, 2021

This is another testimony on how Chief Dr Lucky cured my HIV disease. Do you need a cure for your HIV disease? Do you want to be cured from your cancer disease? Or you want to be free from any type of disease. Kindly visit his website https://chiefdrluckyherbaltherapy.wordpress.com/ . He just cured my HIV disease and I’m very grateful to him, he is the only herbalist that can cure you.   WhatsApp number : +2348132777335  Via Email : chiefdrlucky@gmail.com Thank you all for reading, God bless"

Clara david
Clara david
Jun 24, 2021

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scott
scott
Jun 26, 2021

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KETINA BARLEY
KETINA BARLEY
Jun 28, 2021

I want to say thanks once again to this great man called Dr Zuma and his spiritual way of helping people i lives in USA with my husband we love each other and also he care about me always look forward to make things easy for both of us 9 years after our wedding, we both work harder to make a family greatest surprise, we have a kid after some times again, we have another one so with this, we live in peace and he was so honest to me shortly, he started misbehaving that i don’t know what is going on then i asked him. Darling what is going on? you are so strange to me this few days hope i have not offended you? he said no. Not knowing he have an affair with one lady out side who promised him a car and apartment in one estate were i cannot see him also when he cannot see me i manage to stay with him pleading him he should forgive me if i have wrong him he started complaining he has no money that he has lost all his money in his business that he needs some money then i asked him how much is this money you are looking for? he did not know i can afford it. Then, he said $14,000USD i promised him i we give it to him just for him to care about his family. My greatest surprise, the next day, i went to work and our two kids were in school not knowing his going to leave the house before i come’s back i met some of his things outside i was waiting for him to come back he never come back i cried i miss him so much and he have taking all my money away i was only left with $800USD. One day, as i was ready a blog i saw a testifier made by someone in Australia called Jessica telling people about how this man call Dr Zuma helped her and the man’s contact email was there and his mobile number then i contacted him for a help and really, he brought back my husband now am so happy my brothers and sister if you are in such relationship problem kindly via Email spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com or Whatsapp +15068001647 Blog: https://spiritualherbal.blogspot.com he will help you solve all your problems.

tony cam
tony cam
Jul 10, 2021

My name is Tom cam!!! i am very grateful sharing this great testimonies with you all, The best thing that has ever happened in my life, is how i worn the Powerball lottery. I do believe that someday i will win the Powerball lottery. finally my dreams came through when i contacted Dr. OSE and tell him i needed the lottery winning special numbers cause i have come a long way spending money on ticket just to make sure i win. But i never knew that winning was so easy with the help of Dr. OSE, until the day i meant the spell caster testimony online, which a lot of people has talked about that he is very powerful and has great powers in casting lottery spell, so i decided to give it a try. I emailed Dr. OSE and he did a spell and gave me the winning lottery special numbers 62, and co-incidentally I have be playing this same number for the past 23years without any winning, But believe me when I play the special number 62 this time and the draws were out i was the mega winner because the special 62 matched all five white-ball numbers as well as the Powerball, in the April 4 drawing to win the $70 million jackpot prize...… Dr. OSE, truly you are the best, with Dr. OSE you can will millions of money through lottery. i am a living testimony and so very happy i meant him, and i will forever be grateful to him...… you can Email him for your own winning special lottery numbers now oseremenspelltemple@gmail.com OR WHATSAPP him +2348136482342

tony cam
tony cam
Jul 10, 2021

My name is Tom cam!!! i am very grateful sharing this great testimonies with you all, The best thing that has ever happened in my life, is how i worn the Powerball lottery. I do believe that someday i will win the Powerball lottery. finally my dreams came through when i contacted Dr. OSE and tell him i needed the lottery winning special numbers cause i have come a long way spending money on ticket just to make sure i win. But i never knew that winning was so easy with the help of Dr. OSE, until the day i meant the spell caster testimony online, which a lot of people has talked about that he is very powerful and has great powers in casting lottery spell, so i decided to give it a try. I emailed Dr. OSE and he did a spell and gave me the winning lottery special numbers 62, and co-incidentally I have be playing this same number for the past 23years without any winning, But believe me when I play the special number 62 this time and the draws were out i was the mega winner because the special 62 matched all five white-ball numbers as well as the Powerball, in the April 4 drawing to win the $70 million jackpot prize...… Dr. OSE, truly you are the best, with Dr. OSE you can will millions of money through lottery. i am a living testimony and so very happy i meant him, and i will forever be grateful to him...… you can Email him for your own winning special lottery numbers now oseremenspelltemple@gmail.com OR WHATSAPP him +2348136482342

Jessica Smith
Jessica Smith
Jul 11, 2021

After being in relationship with Wilson for seven years,he broke up with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that don’t believed in spell, I had no choice than to try it, I meant a spell caster called Dr Zuma zuk and I email him, and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before three days, that my ex will return to me before three days, he cast the spell and surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there. Anybody could need the help of the spell caster, his email: spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com or WhatsApp him +15068001647 blog: spiritualherbal.blogspot.com you can email him if you need his assistance in your relationship or anything. CONTACT HIM NOW FOR SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PROBLEMS

jessica stephen
jessica stephen
Jul 15, 2021

I am not sure I could have done it without you. I contacted a real spell caster that helped me change my husband’s heart to love and want me again, and he really did and now we are very happy together. My husband left me for another woman, This was just 3 years of our marriage. The most painful thing is that I was pregnant with our second baby. I wanted him back. I did everything within my reach to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so badly because of the love I had for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to my friend and she suggested that I should rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back , I had no choice than to try it. I messaged the spell caster called dr unity, and he assured me there was no problem and that everything will be okay before 11 hours. He cast the spell and surprisingly 11 hours later my husband called me. I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that had happened He wanted me to return to him. He also said he loved me so much. I was so happy and went to him that was how we started living together happily again.thanks to dr unity . if you are here and your Lover is turning you down, or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact Dr.Unity for help now.. Here his contact..WhatsApp him: +2348055361568 , Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com , Watch this YouTube channel to know how grateful I am https://youtube.com/shorts/rBPtBktMmtA?feature=share

jessica stephen
jessica stephen
Jul 15, 2021

I am not sure I could have done it without you. I contacted a real spell caster that helped me change my husband’s heart to love and want me again, and he really did and now we are very happy together. My husband left me for another woman, This was just 3 years of our marriage. The most painful thing is that I was pregnant with our second baby. I wanted him back. I did everything within my reach to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so badly because of the love I had for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to my friend and she suggested that I should rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back , I had no choice than to try it. I messaged the spell caster called dr unity, and he assured me there was no problem and that everything will be okay before 11 hours. He cast the spell and surprisingly 11 hours later my husband called me. I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that had happened He wanted me to return to him. He also said he loved me so much. I was so happy and went to him that was how we started living together happily again.thanks to dr unity . if you are here and your Lover is turning you down, or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact Dr.Unity for help now.. Here his contact..WhatsApp him: +2348055361568 .

jessica stephen
jessica stephen
Jul 15, 2021

I am not sure I could have done it without you. I contacted a real spell caster that helped me change my husband’s heart to love and want me again, and he really did and now we are very happy together. My husband left me for another woman, This was just 3 years of our marriage. The most painful thing is that I was pregnant with our second baby. I wanted him back. I did everything within my reach to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so badly because of the love I had for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to my friend and she suggested that I should rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back , I had no choice than to try it. I messaged the spell caster called dr unity, and he assured me there was no problem and that everything will be okay before 11 hours. He cast the spell and surprisingly 11 hours later my husband called me. I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that had happened He wanted me to return to him. He also said he loved me so much. I was so happy and went to him that was how we started living together happily again.thanks to dr unity . if you are here and your Lover is turning you down, or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact Dr.Unity for help now.. Here his contact..WhatsApp him: +2348055361568 , Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com , Watch this YouTube channel to know how grateful I am https://youtube.com/shorts/rBPtBktMmtA?feature=share

jessica stephen
jessica stephen
Jul 15, 2021

I am not sure I could have done it without you. I contacted a real spell caster that helped me change my husband’s heart to love and want me again, and he really did and now we are very happy together. My husband left me for another woman, This was just 3 years of our marriage. The most painful thing is that I was pregnant with our second baby. I wanted him back. I did everything within my reach to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so badly because of the love I had for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to my friend and she suggested that I should rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back , I had no choice than to try it. I messaged the spell caster called dr unity, and he assured me there was no problem and that everything will be okay before 11 hours. He cast the spell and surprisingly 11 hours later my husband called me. I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that had happened He wanted me to return to him. He also said he loved me so much. I was so happy and went to him that was how we started living together happily again.thanks to dr unity . if you are here and your Lover is turning you down, or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact Dr.Unity for help now.. Here his contact..WhatsApp him: +2348055361568 , Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com , Watch this YouTube channel to know how grateful I am https://youtube.com/shorts/rBPtBktMmtA?feature=share

stella andre
stella andre
Jul 23, 2021

**PLEASE READ*** From the bottom of my heart, I can never thank you enough DR.BALBOSA for the wonderful work you did for me and my kids to bring back my husband. Am stella Andre from England. I was having serious relationship problems with my husband and he was no longer committed to me and our kids, when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce and i was so heart broken, i cried all day and night, it had resulted in him moving out to his friend’s apartment. Everything got worse because he started going to bars and strip clubs frequently with his friend, getting drunk and passing out. He always threatens me on the phone whenever I call him because of all the bad advice that his friend has given him. I really love him and we had been married for 8 years which gave us a beautiful daughter and a son. I had also lost a lot of money on therapists until I was introduced to DR. BALBOSA by a friend whom he helped to marry her childhood boyfriend, this gave me total confidence and strength to get him back. I did all that DR. BALBOSA asked me to do it and I also followed all instructions given to me by DR. BALBOSA to my greatest surprise after 48 hours my husband called me and rushed back home with a brown new car for me and our kids... things just changed between us emotionally, I was the happiest woman on earth that day. my husband now has a good job and stopped drinking and he stopped keeping irrelevant friends. It’s a miracle I never believed was possible because I had lost all hope until I found DR. BALBOSA...contact him today and get your love back i can assure you .... contact him on his Email on: balbosasolutionhome@gmail.com and his WEBSITE ON: https://balbosasolutionhome.com also CALL/ WHATSAPP: ++1(206) 485-3691...BYE...

jeffrey cage
jeffrey cage
Jul 24, 2021

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stella andre
stella andre
Jul 27, 2021

stella andre Jul 23, 2021**PLEASE READ*** From the bottom of my heart, I can never thank you enough DR.BALBOSA for the wonderful work you did for me and my kids to bring back my husband. Am stella Andre from England. I was having serious relationship problems with my husband and he was no longer committed to me and our kids, when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce and i was so heart broken, i cried all day and night, it had resulted in him moving out to his friend’s apartment. Everything got worse because he started going to bars and strip clubs frequently with his friend, getting drunk and passing out. He always threatens me on the phone whenever I call him because of all the bad advice that his friend has given him. I really love him and we had been married for 8 years which gave us a beautiful daughter and a son. I had also lost a lot of money on therapists until I was introduced to DR. BALBOSA by a friend whom he helped to marry her childhood boyfriend, this gave me total confidence and strength to get him back. I did all that DR. BALBOSA asked me to do it and I also followed all instructions given to me by DR. BALBOSA to my greatest surprise after 48 hours my husband called me and rushed back home with a brown new car for me and our kids... things just changed between us emotionally, I was the happiest woman on earth that day. my husband now has a good job and stopped drinking and he stopped keeping irrelevant friends. It’s a miracle I never believed was possible because I had lost all hope until I found DR. BALBOSA...contact him today and get your love back i can assure you .... contact him on his Email on: balbosasolutionhome@gmail.com and his WEBSITE ON: https://balbosasolutionhome.com also CALL/ WHATSAPP: ++1(206) 485-3691...BYE...

Mrs. Santana Valdez
Mrs. Santana Valdez
Aug 3, 2021

i am giving this testimony cos l am happy My name is Mrs. Santana Valdez from Houston,taxes.i never believed in love spells or magic until i met this spell caster once. when i went to Canada in June 28th 2021 this year on a business summit. i meet a man called Dr Zuma zuk.He is powerful he could help you cast a spells to bring back my love's gone, misbehaving lover looking for some one to love you, bring back lost money and magic money spell or spell for a good job. i'm now happy & a living testimony cos the man i had wanted to marry left me 3 weeks before our wedding and my life was upside down cos our relationship has been on for 2 years. i really loved him, but his mother was against me and he had no good paying job. so when i met this spell caster, i told him what happened and explained the situation of things to him.. at first i was undecided, skeptical and doubtful, but i just gave it a try. and in 6 days when i returned to taxes, my boyfriend (is now my husband ) he called me by himself and came to me apologizing that everything had been settled with his mom and family and he got a new job interview so we should get married..i didn't believe it cos the spell caster only asked for my name and my boyfriends name and all i wanted him to do. well we are happily married now and we are expecting our little kid, and my husband also got a new job and our lives became much better. in case anyone needs the spell caster for some help, email address spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com Great Zuma zuk i thank you very much thank you in 1000000 times.. if not you i would have been losted and wasted thank you. Email Him Through his email address... spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com please make sure you contact him for any financial difficulties okay...What a powerful man such as Dr Zuma zuk.. he is so much powerful..\\ email him for any difficulties.. spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com His whatsapp +15068001647

Olivia bolton
Olivia bolton
Aug 8, 2021

This testimony is worth sharing to the world. I am here to tell the world of the good works of Dr BALBOSA. My name is Olivia Bolton am from the UK.. My man left me and my kids for another older woman. It was not so easy for me.. I love my husband so much and I did not lose hope and I kept praying and God finally answered my prayers...i searched online for a spell caster to help me unite me and my lover back forever and i saw so many testimonies of how DR BALBOSA has helped so many people online and i decided to give him a trial … I contacted him and explained to him. He told me not to worry that he will bring back my man within 24 hours. He consulted his powers and assured me not to worry . He did his work and cast the spell and to my greatest surprise, my husband came back the same day begging and crying just as Dr BALBOSA said. He begged me for forgiveness and he promised never to leave me for any reason. We are happy and we live together as one. Contact Dr BALBOSA now and be happy forever. dont lose hope and good luck.. WHATSAPP AND CALL: +1(206) 485-3691 WEBSITE: https://balbosasolutionhome.com EMAIL: balbosasolutionhome@gmail.com

Prof remmy
Prof remmy
Aug 9, 2021

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Olivia bolton
Olivia bolton
Aug 14, 2021

This testimony is worth sharing to the world. I am here to tell the world of the good works of Dr BALBOSA. My name is Olivia Bolton am from the UK.. My man left me and my kids for another older woman. It was not so easy for me.. I love my husband so much and I did not lose hope and I kept praying and God finally answered my prayers...i searched online for a spell caster to help me unite me and my lover back forever and i saw so many testimonies of how DR BALBOSA has helped so many people online and i decided to give him a trial … I contacted him and explained to him. He told me not to worry that he will bring back my man within 24 hours. He consulted his powers and assured me not to worry . He did his work and cast the spell and to my greatest surprise, my husband came back the same day begging and crying just as Dr BALBOSA said. He begged me for forgiveness and he promised never to leave me for any reason. We are happy and we live together as one. Contact Dr BALBOSA now and be happy forever. dont lose hope and good luck.. WHATSAPP AND CALL: +1(206) 485-3691 WEBSITE: https://balbosasolutionhome.com EMAIL: balbosasolutionhome@gmail.com

Prof. Kamau
Prof. Kamau
Aug 21, 2021

Magic Ring in Witbank, NAMIBIA, ZAMBIA, SOUTH AFRICA+BOTSWANA, USA, New York +27738183320 +27738183320 Magic ring Call or WhatsAp +27738183320 Magic rings are powerful rings that have been cast with a spell. A magic ring contains the spiritual energy of the spell that has been cast on it. A magic ring for love is a love spell that is attached to a ring. A magic ring for money is a money spell attached to a ring. A magic ring for protection is a protection spell attached t a ring Shield your aura from any spiritual harm with magic rings. You can also use magic rings for healing spiritual & physical ailments to eliminate the root cause of sickness & disturbance. Magic rings have different spiritual properties depending on the type of spell cast on it. Bring the ancestral magical powers of the spiritual forces to intervene in any situation in your life. Magic rings for those who want to be successful. Achieve your dreams & get what you want in life with magic rings. Cancel out all dark energies & banish all spiritual disturbances with shielding magic rings. Magical rings focus energy & spiritual power to improve luck or prosperity, for protection & to cure diseases.

Ronald monica
Ronald monica
Aug 27, 2021

MY LOVER IS BACK... My name is Ronald Monica from USA. I am really pleased with this service. I am one of those people who said, “I’ll never call a psychic or a magician or whatever” to help me with my problems – least of all my love problems, but I reached the point where I knew I needed some guidance, and I’m so glad I found this man called Dr balbosa, I never in a million years would have thought I’d be writing a letter like this, but when I nearly lost Andrew, my love in one of our stupid, fights (he broke up with me), I thought I had lost everything. i cry all day and think that he will never come back to me again. I read a testimony by a man called Tyce Logan about him saying how Dr balbosa helped him to get back is ex wife within 48 hours .I quickly email Dr balbosa and explained everything to him And when I was at my most desperate situation he didn’t take advantage of me. Dr Balbosa is the best and genuine spell caster. He performed a very good service for a person in true need. I don’t know how you did it, or how this magic works, but all I know is, IT WORKS!! Andrew, my husband and I are happily back together, and I’ll always be grateful to Dr balbosa... don't fail to contact him for any kind of help, Dr balbosa is very capable and reliable...From Monica WHATSAPP AND CALL: +1(206) 485-3691 EMAIL: balbosasolutionhome@gmail.com BLOG: https://balbosasolutionhome.com

Maviawanczyk
Maviawanczyk
Sep 22, 2021

hi everyone, i want to quickly give this unbelievable review about my Lottery winning, before i won my Big lotto i used to work at Mercy Medical Center in Springfield, Massachusetts. i worked in patient care for 32 years and there was nothing to show for it, while i was working then i kept on playing Lottery game hoping and believing that one day i would win the lottery and have a pipe dream, but before then i had played lottery in different occasions but no win, i decided to try something new by going beyond physical, i read about Dr Dominion lotto spell how he helped people to win the lottery, i contacted him and gave it a try, he caster a lotto winning spell for me and then give me winning number to play, i wasn't sure about it all but i just gave it a trial, behold it was like a magic i won the lottery with the numbers he gave to me. Dr Dominion is really trust worthy and reliable, i am sharing this to you all who have been finding it so hard to win the lottery, Dr Dominion can help you win. here is his info" WhatsApp: +16574277820

Maviawanczyk
Maviawanczyk
Sep 22, 2021

hi everyone, i want to quickly give this unbelievable review about my Lottery winning, before i won my Big lotto i used to work at Mercy Medical Center in Springfield, Massachusetts. i worked in patient care for 32 years and there was nothing to show for it, while i was working then i kept on playing Lottery game hoping and believing that one day i would win the lottery and have a pipe dream, but before then i had played lottery in different occasions but no win, i decided to try something new by going beyond physical, i read about Dr Dominion lotto spell how he helped people to win the lottery, i contacted him and gave it a try, he caster a lotto winning spell for me and then give me winning number to play, i wasn't sure about it all but i just gave it a trial, behold it was like a magic i won the lottery with the numbers he gave to me. Dr Dominion is really trust worthy and reliable, i am sharing this to you all who have been finding it so hard to win the lottery, Dr Dominion can help you win. here is his info" Email: dominionlottospelltemple@gmail.com website: https://drdominiontemple.com WhatsApp: +16574277820

Olivia bolton
Olivia bolton
Sep 22, 2021

This testimony is worth sharing to the world. I am here to tell the world of the good works of Dr BALBOSA. My name is Olivia Bolton am from the UK.. My man left me and my kids for another older woman. It was not so easy for me.. I love my husband so much and I did not lose hope and I kept praying and God finally answered my prayers...i searched online for a spell caster to help me unite me and my lover back forever and i saw so many testimonies of how DR BALBOSA has helped so many people online and i decided to give him a trial … I contacted him and explained to him. He told me not to worry that he will bring back my man within 24 hours. He consulted his powers and assured me not to worry . He did his work and cast the spell and to my greatest surprise, my husband came back the same day begging and crying just as Dr BALBOSA said. He begged me for forgiveness and he promised never to leave me for any reason. We are happy and we live together as one. Contact Dr BALBOSA now and be happy forever. dont lose hope and good luck.. WHATSAPP AND CALL: +1(206) 485-3691 WEBSITE: https://balbosasolutionhome.com EMAIL: balbosasolutionhome@gmail.com

Olivia bolton
Olivia bolton
Sep 22, 2021

This testimony is worth sharing to the world. I am here to tell the world of the good works of Dr BALBOSA. My name is Olivia Bolton am from the UK.. My man left me and my kids for another older woman. It was not so easy for me.. I love my husband so much and I did not lose hope and I kept praying and God finally answered my prayers...i searched online for a spell caster to help me unite me and my lover back forever and i saw so many testimonies of how DR BALBOSA has helped so many people online and i decided to give him a trial … I contacted him and explained to him. He told me not to worry that he will bring back my man within 24 hours. He consulted his powers and assured me not to worry . He did his work and cast the spell and to my greatest surprise, my husband came back the same day begging and crying just as Dr BALBOSA said. He begged me for forgiveness and he promised never to leave me for any reason. We are happy and we live together as one. Contact Dr BALBOSA now and be happy forever. dont lose hope and good luck.. WHATSAPP AND CALL: +1(206) 485-3691 WEBSITE: https://balbosasolutionhome.com EMAIL: balbosasolutionhome@gmail.com

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