general-average-and-york-antwerp-rules1

It is not uncommon these days for people to share the spendings of a group equally. For example, for a group of five friends having lunch together, they share the bill in five equal parts. Each one contributes one fifth of the total amount.

Or for example three to four people sharing a ride back home from office.

share-a-cab York Antwerp rules

This is so easy. Right ? Dividing the fare or food bill is easy and everyone saves some money. But this looks easy because of two reasons.

One because the amount is divided in equal parts. And second because the money involved is not so big to draw a controversy. It would be much more difficult to draw an average if one person said that he has eaten less so he should pay less.

Or for that matter one person said he weighs less so he will pay less for the cab ride.

Oh!! I was supposed to talk about York Antwerp rules, right ? Why am I even talking about sharing a ride and food bill.

Well the York-Antwerp rules are also about sharing the expenditures with certain conditions attached.

Take this example.

A hold on a bulk carrier with cargo in it catches fire. The hold is flooded with water to extinguish the fire and to avoid the fire spreading in other parts of the ship.

We have saved the ship and we have saved the cargo in other holds of the ship. What have we lost ? The cargo loaded in one hold.

Now who would pay for the cargo lost in this case ?

Both the cargo interests as well as the ship owner has saved themselves damages which could have been more. If it was up to me and you to decide, it could be almost impossible to draw a balance on who should pay how much. After all it isn’t as simple as averaging for the food bill or cab fare.

This is what York Antwerp rules aims to do. The process of averaging the contribution of each party (who benefitted) to make up one party’s loss (Sacrifice as well as expenditures) is called “general average“.

General average is based upon the principle

That which has been sacrificed for the benefit of all shall be made good by the contribution of all

general-average-principle

So not all sacrifices and expenditure qualify to be averaged and shared by other parties.

York Antwerp rules sets the guidelines of which all sacrifices and expenditures can be included during “General Average” and which all cannot.

what-is-general-average

How General Average works ?

Let me give an example. A loaded ship is hijacked in Somalian waters and pirates demanded the ransom for release of the ship. After much of negotiations the ransom was brought down to 30,00,000 (3 Million) US dollars.

The ransom amount was delivered and the ship was released. Let us see the break up of total expenses incurred in releasing the ship.

general-average-calculation

Now who do you think will pay this huge amount ?

The principle of general average says that all the parties that benefit from this sacrifice of the ship owner should pay. But how much each one need to pay ?

Cargo owner who had small parcel on board the ship should not pay same as other cargo owners who had huge amount of cargo on board.

So the break up need to be in proportion of how much each party saved from this sacrifice.

As per general average, each party will pay the same percentage of amount that they have saved. For example of the total value saved, 60% belongs to the ship owner. So ship owner need to contribute 60% of the expenditures or amount sacrificed.

Here are the general average contributions from each party in this example.

general-average-contributions

Now in this example, I have over simplified this for the sake of understanding but in realty these calculations can be extremely complex.

Some can even argue if the ransom paid for piracy can give rise to claims under general average ? All this may not be that simple.

For example it may be that ship was taken to Somalia and then upon release ship joined its planned route after one day sailing.

In this case the ship owner’s expenses like fuel cost and ship staff’s wages etc for this period also need to be shared.

But if we do not have a pre defined set of rules, the cargo owners may refuse to share the fuel costs or crew wages. They may say that we will only share the ransom amount.

So there need to be rules which each party will agree upon before the start of voyage. These rules already exists and are known as “York Antwerp rules”.

York Antwerp rules

The first version of York Antwerp rules were issued in 1890. But it was second version of York Antwerp rules that got much of applaud. Even though the latest version of the rules were issued in 2004, most companies use 1994 version of the rules.

Recently a new version of rules were issued in 2016.

York Antwerp rules has two sections. First section has rules that are identified by the letters (Rule A, Rule B .. ). These rules give general guidelines on what can be included in the general average.

Second section has rules that are identified by numbers (Rule I, Rule II .. ). These rules give specific situations, sacrifices and expenditures that can be included in the general average.

york-antwerp-rules

Let is discuss few of the important rules.

Rule Paramount

While all the rules in York Antwerp rules are named either with a number or an alphabet, this one rule is named differently. This is because this rule is paramount to all the rules.

rule-paramount

Sacrifices made by ship owners should be reasonable and they cannot over spend. For example let us say the vessel was towed even when the ship’s engine were working.

This would be considered as “not -reasonable” and this amount will not be included in the general average.

What is General average act (Rule A)

What expenditures will be shared by all parties ? When we talk about general average and York Antwerp rules, this is most important question.

If ship owner places armed guards on board, can this be considered as general average act ? Will these expenses be shared between ship owner and cargo owners ?

Rule A of the York Antwerp rules defines the limits of general average act. It says

There is a general average act, when and only when, any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure

So there are four essential requirements for an action to fall under General average.

conditions-for-general-average-act

1. The expenditure or sacrifice need to be extraordinary

The ship owner is bound by his duty to deliver the cargo safely at the destination. There is nothing extraordinary in any actions that a ship owner performs to fulfill this duty.

ship-owners-responsibility-general-average

This also answers my earlier question if placing the armed guards would come under general average act. It won’t. Ship owner is placing the armed guards to fulfill his duty of delivering the goods safely.

2. The act must be intentional

If the ship ran over a wreck and to release the ship a part of ship or the wreck need to be cut away. The expenditure involved in this will not come under general average because this was not intentional.

Jettisoning part of cargo to re-float the ship or flooding the water in a hold to extinguish the fire are intentional acts.

3. The Action must be for the common safety

Let us understand the term “Common safety: with an example.

Let us say a container ship has few of the refrigerated containers. The referigeration system of the ship failed and ship had to be diverted to a nearest port for repairing it to avoid damaging this cargo.

Will the expenditures incurred by the ship owner in this case come under general average ?

No, because the action is only for saving part cargo and not for the common safety of ship owners and for other cargoes loaded on ship.

For the general average, the action has to be for the common safety.

The action of Jettisoning some cargo to avoid sinking of entire ship is for common safety.

4. There must be a peril

If the master jettison a cargo to save the ship from sinking, it is a peril. But if the master jettison the cargo because he feels that the ship is overloaded, is not a peril.

Dictionary meaning of “peril” is “Grave danger”. If there is no grave danger, general average cannot apply.

But in the context of York Antwerp rules and General average, the interpretation of grave danger can be different.

In fact that is the difference between “a ship in distress” and “a ship in peril“.

For example take a ship that has broken engine in the mid sea with calm weather. The ship is not in distress but the ship is in peril.

General average Sacrifices

The sacrifices that can be made and are included in the general average fall under three categories.

sacrifices-as-per-general-average

The numbered rules gives the examples of the sacrifices that can be included in the general average.

Jettison of cargo: Jettison of cargo will include in the general average if the cargo was carried as per customary trade. For example if the deck cargo was loaded on a ship that is not allowed to load on deck, sacrifice of such cargo will not include in the general average.

Extinguishing fire: General average will include the damages (to ship or the cargo) because of extinguishing fire on board.

Voluntary stranding: Damage and loss because of intentional stranding in “common safety” is allowed to be included in general average.

General Average Expenditures

Apart from the sacrifices, one party may spend lot of money in the common interest of saving the ship and the cargo. As per York Antwerp rules, these expenditures also can be included in the general average.

Some of these expenditures can be

  • Salvage expenses
  • Port of refuse expenses
  • Wages of master and crew during the prolongation period because of port of refuse
  • Fuel during the prolongation period because of port of refuse

No general average for environmental pollution (Rule C)

As per Rule C of the York Antwerp rules, the costs involved in handling environmental pollution cannot be included in the general average.

This is a logical rule as if the general average was to include the environment damage claims, it would have taken the domain of the general average too far.

It does not matter whose fault it is (Rule D)

Let us say a vessel ran aground. The vessel had to sacrifice (Jettison) some of the cargo to re-float it. As per rule D, the cargo owners cannot claim that the grounding was due to the fault of ship owners and they would not contribute to the general average.

Irrespective of the fault which led to the event (in this case grounding), all parties have to contribute to the general average.

But this will not be the case if the ship was unseaworthy. If the grounding resulted because the vessel was unseaworthy, then ship owner cannot benefit from the general average.

In spite of the rule D of the York Antwerp rule, US law does not allow the navigation fault of the ship owner to be neglected. As such most of the ship owners make sure to include “new Jason Clause” in the bill of lading and charter party agreement.

new-jason-clause

Application of York Antwerp rules and General average

In most countries these rules do not have any legal force in themselves. The York Antwerp rules and principle of general average have legal force only if these are included in the bill of lading or charter party agreement.

If you get to see an actual bill of lading, read the term, conditions and clauses on the back side. Most likely you will find a clause regarding York Antwerp and General average there.

general-average-clause

Recovery of general average contribution

In “taxi fare” example, if one person refuse to pay his share what options one can have to recover it.

May be we can let it go as the amount will not be that big.

In the perils at sea, in most of the situations it will be ship owner who would make sacrifices and expenditure to come out of these situations.

So how can a ship owner ensure that everyone will contribute to general average amount that ship owner should get.

In the maritime law a ship owner has the lien on the cargo for the general average contribution. So ship owner will only release the goods once he receives a guarantee that he will get his dues. This guarantee can be in form of

Role of Average adjuster

Don’t go by the name. Average adjuster are not average people. They are the expert in one field of marine insurance, that is general average.

During a general average situations, usually a average adjuster is appointed by one party. The role of the average adjuster is to

  • Collect all the information following a general average action
  • Make a statement of general average contribution of each party
  • Collect general average security from each party
  • Assist in effective settlement of the general average

Irrespective of which party has appointed average adjuster, it is the duty of the average adjuster to be impartial towards general average settlement.

Association of average adjusters sets the standards for the training of average adjusters.

Conclusion

General average allows sharing of loss in an unfortunate incident. General average is a good old maritime practice. Not only for ship owners and other parties involved but also for ship’s masters.

To some extent it allows the master of the ship to be a boss and take actions what he believes is the best for that situation.

Take an example where master need to beach the ship to save it from sinking. Because of general average, master would face lesser resistance from all the parties as the loss would be shared.

In the absence of general average, condition would be different. Master may have to convince all parties that beaching is the only option.

Another example where master has to jettison some cargo to save the ship. In the absence of general average, the cargo owner might object to why his cargo was jettisoned and not the other cargo ?

York Antwerp rules and General average has something good for everyone involved with a ship and carriage of cargo.

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Capt Rajeev Jassal

About Capt Rajeev Jassal

Capt. Rajeev Jassal has sailed for over 19 years mainly on crude oil, product and chemical tankers. He holds MBA in shipping & Logistics degree from London. He has done extensive research on quantitatively measuring Safety culture onboard and safety climate ashore which he believes is the most important element for safer shipping.

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58 Comments

Ashish Kumar
Ashish Kumar
Oct 8, 2016

First of all ........thanks sir for posting this useful article. Needed your useful clarification on few other topics like hauge , hague visby & hamburg rules. Also if you could explain the meaning of term "scantling draught". Many thanks in advance

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Oct 9, 2016

Ashish, I had written a post on Hague visby rules. I hope this is what you are looking for. Check that out. Scantling draft is the maximum draft at which ship can withstand all the loads safely. It can be more than the design draft of the vessel but never lesser than that.

Ashish Kumar
Ashish Kumar
Oct 9, 2016

Many thanks for providing the definition of scantling draft...as i had asked many ppl for it but no one could provide me with this answer. Further can u send me the link of the post on Hague visby rules as i cant locate it.

Ashish Kumar
Ashish Kumar
Oct 9, 2016

Thanks ...i have got it.

AJAY KUMAR
AJAY KUMAR
Feb 2, 2018

Sir can it be more than summer draft???

Mac Pablo Dias
Mac Pablo Dias
Jun 10, 2020

Thank you so much sir for that lovely Article, beautiful in simple words explained which i will always remember. Sir how do i get in touch with you

Yashovardhan Chaubay
Yashovardhan Chaubay
Oct 30, 2016

i am preparing for chief mates and this article is the most simplest for me to understand this.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Oct 31, 2016

Glad you found it useful Yashovardhan...

Paul
Paul
Nov 14, 2016

Dear Rajeev, excellent article. I do have one question though - what happens if the ship is not laden? Then the cost would be split between the charterer (if the ship on a TC for example) and the owner? What about when a vessel is voyage chartered and is on her ballast leg - same conditions as above with the TC apply? Thank you advance, Paul

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Nov 17, 2016

Hi Paul.. For ballast passage there will only be one party involved. That will the owner of the ship. For example if the ship crew flood the hold to extinguish fire in a empty hold, no one other than owner is benefitted. So this will be a case of particular average and only owner would bear the costs.

Rohit
Rohit
Sep 14, 2019

On time charter fuel is being supplied by Charterer, so i believe in ballast passage he has to contribute even in absence of cargo. Correct me if i am wrong

Ajay Sanga
Ajay Sanga
Feb 10, 2017

Excellent very nicely explained

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Feb 10, 2017

Thanks Ajay..

Chrischika
Chrischika
Mar 12, 2017

Please sir I need an answer on similarities and differences of Hague visit rule and York antwerp rule

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Mar 13, 2017

Hague visby rules deals with the Bill of ladings and contract of carriage. York Antwerp rules deals with averaging the loss in case of an accident during the voyage.

chrischika
chrischika
Mar 13, 2017

thanks so much sir

Dinesh Rana
Dinesh Rana
Jul 9, 2017

thank you v much for the lovely explaination.. i would like to correct that the vessel is in distress under calm sea is not under command and not in peril unless high wind force rough weather.. as the master has to decide wheather she has to be towed or salvage.

Dhadwal
Dhadwal
Jul 23, 2017

Thank you Sir. Excellent information well presented.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Aug 26, 2017

Thanks, Dhadwal....

Anuradha Iroshan
Anuradha Iroshan
Aug 25, 2017

Thanks a lot...every presentation is so perfect...you are a treasure to our field.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Aug 26, 2017

Thank you, Anuradha...

Salim Mfunga
Salim Mfunga
Dec 19, 2017

Sinking a burning ship in order to extinguish fire can it be included in the General average?

Rohit Seth
Rohit Seth
Jan 10, 2018

First of let me congratulate you Sir for this excellent write up. I have a doubt , if a superintendent is flown in to assist a ship which is already grounded , Can the expenses be added to general average.

shashi kumar
shashi kumar
Jan 27, 2018

excellent article sir, can u explain who declares that it is GA in practice.Its only master or any party having interest?

Ankush sood
Ankush sood
Jan 30, 2018

First of all thank u sir for posting this in such a simple language to understand. I am preparing for mates exams, can you pls post a small description of Rotterdam rules also.

lisa
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Feb 6, 2018

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Purushottam lal
Purushottam lal
Apr 1, 2018

the explanation was so great ....no have word to say ..sir please if you can share on magnetic compass and corrector and tentative swing ..it will great for me doing my master

Dipen Ghariya
Dipen Ghariya
Aug 8, 2018

Sir, can you please post information on. Problem posed by article 13 & 14 of salvage convention towards rule 6 of york antwerp rules

Gulbag
Gulbag
Aug 19, 2018

Sir please write a topic on sue and labour clause. Mentioning the shares between different parties and how it is done.

jeff
jeff
Oct 23, 2018

what is the use of leed line and what occasion can it be apply.

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shanmugaram
shanmugaram
Nov 27, 2018

Sir , why does the numbered rules takes precedence over the lettered rules ? any logical explaniation

Calantas
Calantas
Mar 21, 2019

Sir can you discuss also the hamburg rule as well as the rotterdam rule... Your explaination on huage and hague visby rule is really great and comprehendable... Only at your explainations i may understand these rule compare to my instructor.. I hope you can have these request possible soon. Thanks...

DALJEET SINGH
DALJEET SINGH
Apr 23, 2019

Sir, In LCL Container, if one of the consignees refuses to pay General Average for uninsured cargo. What options available to other consignees? Can we hold responsible for Freight Forwarder / Consolidator? Pls advise. Thanks ...

sameer kaushik
sameer kaushik
Jun 5, 2019

my question is, if a loaded vessel gets grounded due to low tide and master calls for tugs for towing. before arrival of tugs the ships get afloat because of change of tide. in this case will the tugs be paid? if yes then who will pay?

Rashid Ghffar
Rashid Ghffar
Jul 19, 2019

Will the GA Guarantee be returned by the Average Adjusters to the Insurance company after settlement is finalized and dues have been paid???

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Amar anand
Jun 29, 2020

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Olga
Sep 2, 2020

Hello viewers my name is olga bottova my husband left me for another woman after one year of our marriage. I needed him back desperately because I loved him so much. I became very worried and needed help. On this faithful day as I was browsing through the internet, I came across a particular testimony about the GREAT AMADI TEMPLE. So I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a (return Love spell) for me. 28 hours later, my husband came back to me crying and begging for my forgiveness. Today I'm so happy and I want to recommend this great spell caster to anyone that truly needs an urgent solution to his or her broken relationships he is specialized in 1. bring back lost lover 2. win your loved one heart 3. help single people to find partners 4. be married 5. Love attraction 6. Married problems & Divorce 7. Love portion 8. kidney problem all kind of disease. 9. Luck in winning an election or any political appointment, he can do it all. you can contact him on whatsapp with (+2348127073294) Or email him on: amaditempleuniversal@gmail.com

Ansel
Ansel
Sep 2, 2020

Anyone in dire need of a spell caster to get back ex lover, make your relationship work or afraid of a divorce? Msg a great spellcaster I know on WhatsApp +2348127073294 and you'll be wowed by his marvelous works

marcus jackson
marcus jackson
Sep 2, 2020

Hello I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real spell caster on line that is powerful and genuine, his name is Dr WISKID he helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my husband who left me last year, When i contacted Dr WISKID he cast an urgent love spell for me, and my husband who said he doesn’t love me, he doedn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me that he is coming back. he is back now with so much love and care. today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the powers to restore broken marriage/relationship back. because i am now happy with my husband. to anyone who is reading this article and needs any help, Dr WISKID can also offer any type of help like, Curing of all types of Diseases, Court Cases, Pregnancy Spell, urgent love spell,Spiritual protection and lot’s more. You can contact him Via his email drwiskid.spellcaster@yahoo.com for more info, whatsapp/call…+2348078467513

Carlos Sofia
Carlos Sofia
Sep 5, 2020

Am sure among all this spell casters online only doctor Azaka is real because i have try using most of them all they do is to take your money and never help only dr Azaka can relate of helping me with bringing back my man all thanks to you Dr Azaka you can also contact him on what'sapp for help on +1(315)316-1521 or his email address is Azakaspelltemple4 @ gmail .com

Ann Earnis
Ann Earnis
Sep 5, 2020

HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF PRIEST WISDOM CONTACT ON WHATS_APP NUMBER +2348124644470 This is my testimony about the good work of priest wisdom who help me ... I'm Ann Earnis from north Carolina USA. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to, by this world best spell caster that brought back my husband who left me out for past 3 years, i eventually met this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 1 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told me have come to pass and thank you sir. Please I want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to their problem, I advise you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tells is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on: his email address is supernaturalspell1@gmail.com or directly on whats-app +2348124644470  ..//..........

Ann Earnis
Ann Earnis
Sep 7, 2020

HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF PRIEST WISDOM CONTACT ON WHATS_APP NUMBER +2348124644470 This is my testimony about the good work of priest wisdom who help me ... I'm Ann Earnis from north Carolina USA. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to, by this world best spell caster that brought back my husband who left me out for past 3 years, i eventually met this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 1 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told me have come to pass and thank you sir. Please I want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to their problem, I advise you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tells is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on: his email address is supernaturalspell1@gmail.com or directly on whats-app +2348124644470  https://supernaturalspell21.blogspot.com/

aleta
aleta
Sep 7, 2020

This is a testimony that I will tell to everyone to hear. i have been married for 4 years and on the fifth year of my marriage, another woman had a spell to take my lover away from me and my husband left me and the kids and we have suffered for 2 years until i meant a post where this man Dr, Ogedegbe have helped someone and i decided to give him a try to help me bring my love Husband home and believe me i just send my picture to him and that of my husband and after 48 hours as he have told me, i saw a car drove into the house and behold it was my husband and he have come to me and the kids and that is why i am happy to make every one of you in similar to meet with this man and have your lover back to your self His email: dr.ogedegbe6@gmail.com or you can also contact him or whatsapp him on this +2348109374702 thank so much Dr OGEDEGBE for saving my marriage.

marcus jackson
marcus jackson
Sep 8, 2020

i really appreciate the effort of the great Dr wiskid for restoring my broken relationship. i thought my life has crashed and would not get all i have lost. but the moment i contacted Dr wiskid the best and genuine spell caster everything changed within 48 hours after the reunion spell. if you think the ether can be bent to your favor and you want to contract a genuine spell caster to remove all the hate in your life. contact Dr wiskid and am so sure the result will overwhelm you with tears of joy! contact him on this email address: drwiskid.spellcaster@yahoo.com he is a good man thanks. his whatsapp number too is +2348078467513 You can also visit his website: www.herbalhome247.wixsite.com/mysite

Lilia Gotze
Lilia Gotze
Sep 12, 2020

A spell caster call Dr Ajayi helped me to get back my husband after 2 years of separation due to misunderstanding and i begged him on several occasion to come back home to be with me and our three kids but refuse instead staying with another woman who i believe is manipulating him. I saw a testimony about the spell caster Dr Ajayi while searching for help online who explained how he helped her to get her brother out of prison after performing a pardon spell for her, i really want my husband to come back home, so i text the spell caster on WhatsApp : +2347084887094 and told me what needed to be done, k followed all instructions and today i am to also share my testimony because my husband came back home three days after Dr Ajayi performed a spell for him to come back home, we are living happily now. I was having doubts but now i have doubts no more because the all the Spell Caster told me what happened as he explained to me, so if you need the help of a spell caster for any kind of problem you are facing in life contact Dr Ajayi email : drajayi1990@gmail.com or WhatsApp : +2347084887094.

ritals becka
ritals becka
Sep 12, 2020

i really appreciate the effort of the great Dr wiskid for restoring my broken relationship. i thought my life has crashed and would not get all i have lost. but the moment i contacted Dr wiskid the best and genuine spell caster everything changed within 48 hours after the reunion spell. if you think the ether can be bent to your favor and you want to contract a genuine spell caster to remove all the hate in your life. contact Dr wiskid and am so sure the result will overwhelm you with tears of joy! contact him on this email address: drwiskid.spellcaster@yahoo.com he is a good man thanks. his whatsapp number too is +2348078467513 You can also visit his website: www.herbalhome247.wixsite.com/mysite

Monisha Alexis
Monisha Alexis
Sep 13, 2020

I promise to share this testimony all over the world once my boyfriend returns back to me, and today with all due respect I want to thank DR.ONIHA for bringing joy and happiness to my relationship and my family. I want to inform you all that there is a spell caster that is real and genuine. I never believed in any of these things until I lost my boyfriend, I required help until I found a great spell caster, And he cast a love spell for me, and he assured me that I will get my boyfriend back in two days after the spell has been cast. Three days later, my phone rang, and so shockingly, it was my boyfriend who has not called me for the past 6 years now, and made an apology for the heart break, and told me that he is ready to be my backbone till the rest of his life with me. DR.ONIHA released him to know how much I loved and wanted him. And opened his eyes to picture how much we have shared together. As I`m writing this testimony right now I`m the happiest girl on earth and me and my boyfriend are living a happy life and our love is now stronger than how it was even before our break up. So that`s why I promised to share my testimony all over the universe. All thanks goes to DR.ONIHA for the excessive work that he has done for me. Below is the email address in any situation you are undergoing, it may be a heart break, and I assure you that as he has done mine for me, he will definitely help you too. EMAIL: ONIHASPELLTEMPLE@GMAIL.COM CALL/WHATSAPP : +16692213962. Website: http://onihaspells.com.

maria gusto
maria gusto
Sep 14, 2020

WOW...What a Great Testimony....I am by name Maria Gusto from USA, i want to use this opportunity to thank the Great DR.balbosa for helping in getting my Ex husband back to me, i have been in great pains until the day i contacted DR on, balbosasolutionhome@gmail.com or TEXT on +14237810501.he gave me a lasting solution and told me to wait for just 12 hours so that my Ex husband will call me and i did according to the instructions given to me by him and surprisingly, before 12 hours, my Ex husband really called me and started apologizing for all he had caused me.I am the happiest Woman on earth today because Dr.balbosa has done wonderful deeds in my life and I will continue to share this testimony, you can contact him also for help on his Email; balbosasolutionhome@gmail.com and Number on +1(423)7810501(Text Messages Only).Good Luck...

Anusha Todurkar
Anusha Todurkar
Sep 17, 2020

A big thanks to Dr Oselumen i never believe that there still exist a real death spell caster after all this years of disappointment from the enormous spammers on the Internet who go about scamming people, until i was opportune to meet Dr Oselumen a real spell caster, through a close friend called Jennifer who Dr oselumen had helped before, when i contacted him with his email via droselumen@gmail.com i explain how my ex have been giving me problem in my marriage, she never allowed me a moment of peace, and i need to end it by killing her, and i don't want to make use of assassin because it will be risky so i needed to do it in a spiritual way that's why i decided to contact him, he assured me not to worry as i have contacted the right person at the right time, i co-operated with him and in less than a week my ex was dead, she slept and never woke up all thanks to Dr Oselumen indeed he's really a humble man. you can contact dr oselumen for any death spell, such as to kill your superior in the office and take his or her place, death spell to kill your father and inherit his wealth ,death spell to kill anyone who have scammed you in the past ,spell for increase in salaries, spell for promotion at the office, spell to get your ex lover back, if things is not working well in your life then you need to contact him now via Email droselumen@gmail.com call or add him on whatsapp +2348054265852.

kelvin
kelvin
11 hours ago

I am so happy how Dr Voke cured me from Herpes virus and Hepatitis-b, since 4 year ago i was effected with herpes simplex virus 1 and hepatitis-b, and i have taken all manner of drugs prescribed to me by several doctors,but all my effort was wasted,i cried all day thinking on how i can be cured of this illness, i lost hope while i was looking for solution for my health,but one faithful day, i was searching the internet i came across several testimonies about Dr Voke, and how he has cure so many effected individual ,so i try and contact his email and asked him for solution about my herpes simplex virus 1 and he started the preparation to my cure,to my greatest surprise after two weeks, i was totally cure by his powerful herbal medicine,i never believe that i could be cured from this wicked disease until i met Dr voke i’m very grateful to you and i know your herbal medicine will save more millions of lives. his email Address doctorvoke1@gmail.com, Whatsapp phone number +1 (773) 349 2820.

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