damage-stability-worst-case

Since the day I have started writing, I get a lot of requests suggesting the topics I should write on.

But do you know which question I have been asked the maximum number of times?

No prize for guessing.

It is this question.

How to know the worst case of damage stability?

Well, It is today that I decided to write on it in detail and explain it.

Are you ready to read the answer to this most mystic question?

Let dive in.

Requirements of damage stability

A ship that can float cannot always be said to be a safe ship.

It must also be able to remain afloat even after sustaining some amount of damage.

Damage stability calculations are all about getting to know if the vessel will remain afloat after sustaining some damage on its hull.

That is what SOLAS, MARPOL (For tankers) and IBC code (For chemical tankers) does.

All these regulations define two things

  • the extent of damage that needs to be assumed.
  • Sustainability criteria for the assumed extent of damage

For the vessel to comply with damage stability, it should be able to achieve the sustainability criteria after the assumed extent of the damage.

Extent of damage

Let us see the defined extent of damage as per various regulations.

Assumed Extent of damage as per SOLAS

Here is the extent of damage defined in SOLAS for cargo and passenger ships without a double bottom.

Damage-extent-SOLAS

 

Below is the required extent of damage to be assumed for passenger ships

Passenger-ships-extent-of-damage-SOLAS

Damage stability requirements in MARPOL

The required assumed extent of damage defined in MARPOL annex 1 for oil tankers is as below.

extent-of-damage-MARPOL-annex-1

 

The assumed extent of damage as per IBC code

The required assumed extent of damaged defined in IBC code for chemical tanks is as below

IBC-Damage-Assumptions

Damage cases as per the assumed extent of damage

Based on the damage assumption requirements, damage cases are created for the vessel by the class.

You can see these cases in damage stability calculations, either in loadicator or in damage stability booklet.

Here are the few of the damage cases from one of the vessel.

damage-cases-damage-stability

Damage stability for each damage case

For the vessel to comply with damage stability requirements, for each damage case, the vessel must comply with the damage stability requirements under MARPOL annex 1 (for oil tankers) and under IBC code (for chemical tankers)

What does this mean?

Let us take the damage case 201.

In this case,  FPTK, 1W(P) and, 1W(S) are assumed to be damaged.

If after this damage, vessel still complied with the damage stability survival requirements as set in MARPOL, IBC code or SOLAS (as applicable), the ship can be said to be complying with the damage stability with reference to damage case 201.

These calculations need to be done for each damage case and ship need to be complying with damage stability survival requirements for each of these damage cases.

If even one case does not comply then for this stowage vessel will not be complying with damage stability and we need to make changes to the stowage and again check for the damage stability.

Of course, manual calculations are not required and lodicator does these calculations for us.

And after calculations, it just shows us if the for the intended stowage if the vessel is complying with damage stability or not.

Survival requirements

But what are the required survival requirements?

That is, after the assumed damage under each damage case what all stability requirements vessel need to fulfill for it to be considered complying with damage stability?

Here are the survival requirements as per the IBC code.

IBC-damage-stability-compliance-requirements

 

And here are the survival requirements as per MARPOL.

Marpol-Compliance-requirements-damage-stability

Although the MARPOL and IBC code requirements are for oil tankers and chemical tankers respectively, if you look closely there are a lot of similarities in the two requirements.

Deciding Factors for damage stability compliance

If we need to know the worst case of damage stability, we need to first bring all the deciding factors on the table.

Let us see which are the deciding factors for damage stability compliance.

Look at the survival requirements as per IBC and Marpol and you would know that these are

  • The distance from the waterline to the opening through which progressive flooding can take place
  • Angle of heel
  • range of righting lever curve (GZ curve)
  • Residual righting lever
  • The area under the GZ curve

Contrary to the belief of many, GM of the vessel does not represent here as a factor for deciding the damage stability.

But as the GZ curve and GM of the vessel has a direct relation, we can say that GM indirectly affects the damage stability.

For the scope of this article, I will not discuss here the relation between GM and GZ. I will leave that for some other day.

So if there is anything that decides the worst case of damage stability it has to be one or more of the above factors.

Which one(s) is that? Let us find out.

Right Lever, Range under GZ curve, area under GZ curve

What is GZ and why it is important?

GZ is righting lever. It is the force that brings the ship back when inclined to an angle by an external force.

In simple words, the centre of gravity (G) of the ship for a particular condition remains the same.

Whereas the center of buoyancy (B) changes with the heel as the underwater area would change when the vessel is inclined.

This generates a lever (GZ) that brings the vessel back to normal.

Righting-Lever-GZ

GZ would increase as the angle of heel increases because with an increase in the heel the center of buoyancy would shift farther from the center of gravity.

GZ curve is the curve drawn for the length of the righting lever (GZ) against the angle of heel.

Righting-arm-GZ-curve

The area under the GZ curve at an angle of heel is simply the area of the curve from 0 deg heel to that angle of heel.

area-under-GZ-curve

The significance of the area under the GZ curve is that it represents the amount of work required to bring the ship to that angle of heel.

In other words, it will also be the force available to bring the ship back to its original position or the force available to counter the external force that is causing the ship to heel.

GZ and damage stability

So when a ship is damaged and is arrived at equilibrium, one thing we want is it to have some dynamic stability to withstand the usual weather conditions.

In simple words, in damaged conditions, if the vessel does not have any dynamic stability then a slight increase in the heel due to weather conditions can capsize the vessel.

The minimum dynamic stability required after the assumed damage cases is defined in MARPOL and IBC.

I do not have the calculations to show how severe weather conditions the vessel can survive with these minimum values required as per MARPOL and IBC code.

But we can believe that IMO came to these values to ensure that the ship can withstand normal weather conditions at sea.

The distance from the waterline to the opening through which progressive flooding can take place

Apart from GZ and related criteria, there are one more criteria that are required to be fulfilled for the vessel to comply with damage stability.

This is…

“The distance from the waterline to the opening through which progressive flooding can take place”.

And it is required that

The final waterline, taking into account the sinkage, heel, and trim, shall be below the lower edge of any opening through which the progressive flooding can take place.

So after the damage and when the vessel has arrived at the equilibrium, the openings like air pipe and other openings that are not water-tight must be above the water line considering

  • it does not apply to the opening of the compartments that are already flooded
  • if any opening is below the waterline, the compartment needs to be assumed to be flooded for damage stability calculations.

So if you note, a small distance of even 5cms between the waterline and the opening is considered in compliance.

What if we have a swell of more than a few meters?

Even when we are complying with the damage stability requirements, the compartment can get flooded in this case and everything changes.

GZ and other values that were complying with damage stability with this compartment intact will now change and may not comply anymore.

The worst case of damage stability

Finally, I come to the concluding part.

The damage stability requirements have defined the minimum required criteria for each element.

Except for the distance of waterline from opening through which progressive flooding can take place.

This is a critical factor too.

If the distance is too small, the vessel will still comply with the requirements but the whole scenario will change if the compartment gets flooded through this opening because of weather conditions.

So the worst case of damage stability is the one that has the least distance from the waterline to the opening through which progressive flooding can take place.

Example of the worst case of stability

I know now you would like to see an example for the worst case of stability.

Let us take this as step by step.

Critical openings

The first thing we need to know is the critical opening for the ship.

These are the openings through which progressive flooding can take place and these are identified by the classification society.

If you are on a vessel, do some homework to find the list of these openings. These must be either in your approved loading conditions booklet or damage stability booklet.

Here is the list of the critical opening of one of the vessels.

Damage stability calculations

Damage stability calculations demonstrate if the vessel’s stowage would comply with the damage stability requirements.

And as one of the requirements is that the critical opening must be above the waterline, the damage stability calculations are supposed to give the distance from the waterline to these openings.

Here are the damage stability calculations for one of the vessel.

Damage stability calculations

The last column (Opening immersion) gives the distance from a critical opening (the one with the least distance for that damaged case).

It also gives the identification of the opening for each case (in the above it is given as the identification number of that opening).

So looking at the above calculations can you guess the worst case of damage stability?

Did you say “Damage case 301″ in which has the least distance of the critical opening (no 40) from waterline (0.12m)?

Let us scroll to the next page of the damage stability calculations for this same loading condition to see if you are right.

most-severe-case-of-damage-stability

Bingo. You are absolutely right. It is damage case 301 indeed.

You see this loading computer identifies the “most severe damage case” and provides the information in one section.

But if your loading computer does not do that then you can identify the most severe damage case by looking at the distance of critical opening from the waterline.

But there is one more thing that you need to be careful about.

You need to check if the damage case with the least distance of critical opening from the waterline is not assumed to be flooded.

If it is assumed to be flooded, then the distance of this opening from the waterline would not matter and we need to look for the next most severe case.

For example, look at this damage stability calculations.

damage-calculations-2

Which would be the most severe damage case in this?

You would probably say, damage case 408 with the least distance of 0.25m for opening # 46.

The opening no 46 is Air vent for E/R cofferdam (S).

And the assumed damaged compartments in damage case 408 are: 5W(P), SP(P), E/RFORDM, S/G RM, FWT(P).

The opening no 46 comes under one of these damaged compartments (E/RFORDM). So we need to neglect this while choosing the most severe damage case.

In this case, we need to look for the next most severe damage case and so on till we have a damage case where the distance is the least and the compartment of the critical opening is not already assumed as flooded.

In the above example, this would be damage case 108 as the most severe damage case.

most-severe-case-damage-stability-2

Conclusion

It is not a statutory requirement for the masters to know about the most severe damage case.

However, SIRE requires masters to be aware of that.

Surely the factors that decide the compliance with the damage stability requirements need to be the one that decides the most severe case of damage stability too.

And these factors are

  • GZ and other associated data
  • angle of heel
  • the distance of critical opening from the waterline

IMO has already defined the minimum required criteria for the first two factors but not for the third one.

This is the factor that decides the most severe case of damage stability.

The damage case that has the least distance of the critical opening to the waterline will be the most severe damage case.

The most severe damage case need not be the same for all loading conditions.

It can be different for different loading conditions but more often there will be one damage case that would appear as the favorite for most of the loading conditions.

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Capt Rajeev Jassal

About Capt Rajeev Jassal

Capt. Rajeev Jassal has sailed for over 20 years mainly on crude oil, product and chemical tankers. He holds MBA in shipping & Logistics degree from London. He has done extensive research on quantitatively measuring Safety culture onboard and safety climate ashore which he believes is the most important element for safer shipping.

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69 Comments

Chiranjiv Rana
Chiranjiv Rana
Aug 27, 2019

It is always a pleasure to read your articles sir. Just want to clarify .. as it is mentioned that worst case of DS will depend on the least distance from the waterline of any critical opening that is not already assumed to be flooded ... Will it not matter that the critical opening is serving which compartment ... For eg 5S wbt may be a much smaller tank as compared to 4S wbt ... Will it not affect the result if the critical opening serves 5s or 4s ? Thank you for your efforts sir ...

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Sep 3, 2019

It won't matter as far as it is a critical opening...

Alex322
Alex322
May 6, 2021

Good day sir!Ballast vent heads shoud we consider as the openings through which progressive flooding can take place?Air Vent Head which is installed on the vessel is required strict design and function according toclassifcation regulationand IACS P3 in order not to be infowed in tank by seawater

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Ilyas
Ilyas
Aug 28, 2019

Thank u sir . Very well explained.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Sep 3, 2019

Thanks Ilyas...

Satyajit Dilip
Satyajit Dilip
Aug 28, 2019

Excellent Sir. Just what I was looking for. The confusion has been finally cleared as to which to choose from the Criteria .. Least GZ , greatest angle of heel or dist of opening to the waterline. So it is the dist of the opening nearest to the waterline which will decide the worst damage case. Thanks again Sir..

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Sep 3, 2019

Glad you found it useful Satyajit...

Yogesh Raval
Yogesh Raval
Sep 1, 2019

Sir the chapter above has clarified many doubts and confusions however in the above case kindly also advice how it will be known that the compartment is considered to be flooded.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Sep 3, 2019

Each damage case assumes some compartment to be flooded. Which compartments are assumed to be flooded in each damage case is provided in damage stability booklet.

Yogesh Raval
Yogesh Raval
Sep 3, 2019

Thank you sir.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Sep 13, 2019

Thanks Yogesh...

Harbinder Singh
Harbinder Singh
Sep 11, 2019

THANK YOU VERY MUCH SIR, FOR THE EFFORTS. YOU CANNOT IMAGINE THE HEIGHT OF SATISFACTION I GOT AFTER READING THIS ARTICLE(SELF EXPLANATORY).

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Sep 13, 2019

Great to hear that Harbinder...

Harbinder Singh
Harbinder Singh
Sep 11, 2019

SIR WHAT DO WE UNDERSTAND BY DECK IMMERSION COLUMN IN DIFFERENT CASES THE +VE & -VE ? VALUES AND THE NUMBER NEXT TO IT.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Sep 13, 2019

-ve means that deck line is immersed. +ve means deck line is not immersed. The number gives the distance of the deck line to the water line.

Tolga Atabey
Tolga Atabey
Sep 12, 2019

First of all thanks a lot for this beneficial information, it refreshed my knowledge as chief officer on chemical tankers.I can barely see the importance of deck immersion however as far as I am concerned, the GZ value should be also considered as well as deck immersion value. During the calculations, I always firstly consider the value of GZ. I mean I always choose the least GZ value result as worst case if I am right ? Could you please confirm if it is true all the time ?

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Sep 13, 2019

We do not need to consider the value of GZ as if GZ is less than the required value then vessel is not complying with the damage stability and there is no need to know the worst case of damage stability becuase we need to first correct the stowage to the one where damage stability is complied with.

Okeksiy
Okeksiy
Dec 14, 2019

We need new topics !!! ;)

vineeth
vineeth
Dec 24, 2019

Sir...your explanations are the best...Appreciate your effort...Best wishes!!!

Michael Laroya
Michael Laroya
Feb 17, 2020

Thank you sir and well explained ,

Carlos
Carlos
Feb 25, 2020

Thousands of thanks captain...many Years looking for a explanation like this...

Sushil
Sushil
Mar 3, 2020

Very nicely explained sir Thank you sir

AMAR ANAND
AMAR ANAND
Apr 28, 2020

Great article sir ....want you to write more on probabilistic method...as you have already write on it...but need to know more...from where they get required subdivision index...subdivision length n all that

Saurabh Mahajan
Saurabh Mahajan
May 26, 2020

Thank you sir, Very well explained great work.

Shrey Roy
Shrey Roy
Jul 5, 2020

Thank you Sir for your effort in explaining a topic frequently asked by the SIRE inspectors. It was sought for since a long time specially on ships where loadicator isn't fitted with damage stability calculations.

Jayson Ray B. Consad
Jayson Ray B. Consad
Jul 17, 2020

superb, salamat

Sharad
Sharad
Oct 4, 2020

Pls also advice which all ship's plans must be stamped by Classification society.

Saurabh Doval
Saurabh Doval
Oct 15, 2020

Excellent and very detailed Explanation done by you sir !!! Thanks

Ages Of Sail
Ages Of Sail
Nov 20, 2020

That's really nice post. I appreciate your skills, Thanks for sharing.

Sadia
Sadia
Nov 29, 2020

This is nice Articale, Thanks for Sharing your Information Marine Safety Equipment LSA products FFA products

Anuradha Peiris
Anuradha Peiris
Dec 29, 2020

thank you very much

Eds
Eds
Jan 4, 2021

Kudos Capt! ????????????????

eds
eds
Jan 4, 2021

Is it mandatory to use the online mode in loadicator. Will it be statutory requirements in the future? ????

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Good day sir!Ballast vent heads shoud we consider as the openings through which progressive flooding can take place?They are so design to prevent flooding.

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I am not sure I could have done it without you. I contacted a real spell caster that helped me change my husband’s heart to love and want me again, and he really did and now we are very happy together. My husband left me for another woman, This was just 3 years of our marriage. The most painful thing is that I was pregnant with our second baby. I wanted him back. I did everything within my reach to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so badly because of the love I had for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to my friend and she suggested that I should rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back , I had no choice than to try it. I messaged the spell caster called dr unity, and he assured me there was no problem and that everything will be okay before 11 hours. He cast the spell and surprisingly 11 hours later my husband called me. I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that had happened He wanted me to return to him. He also said he loved me so much. I was so happy and went to him that was how we started living together happily again.thanks to dr unity . if you are here and your Lover is turning you down, or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact Dr.Unity for help now.. Here his contact..WhatsApp him: +2348055361568 , Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com , Watch this YouTube channel to know how grateful I am https://youtube.com/shorts/rBPtBktMmtA?feature=share

Mrs. Santana Valdez
Mrs. Santana Valdez
Aug 3, 2021

i am giving this testimony cos l am happy My name is Mrs. Santana Valdez from Houston,taxes.i never believed in love spells or magic until i met this spell caster once. when i went to Canada in June 28th 2021 this year on a business summit. i meet a man called Dr Zuma zuk.He is powerful he could help you cast a spells to bring back my love's gone, misbehaving lover looking for some one to love you, bring back lost money and magic money spell or spell for a good job. i'm now happy & a living testimony cos the man i had wanted to marry left me 3 weeks before our wedding and my life was upside down cos our relationship has been on for 2 years. i really loved him, but his mother was against me and he had no good paying job. so when i met this spell caster, i told him what happened and explained the situation of things to him.. at first i was undecided, skeptical and doubtful, but i just gave it a try. and in 6 days when i returned to taxes, my boyfriend (is now my husband ) he called me by himself and came to me apologizing that everything had been settled with his mom and family and he got a new job interview so we should get married..i didn't believe it cos the spell caster only asked for my name and my boyfriends name and all i wanted him to do. well we are happily married now and we are expecting our little kid, and my husband also got a new job and our lives became much better. in case anyone needs the spell caster for some help, email address spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com Great Zuma zuk i thank you very much thank you in 1000000 times.. if not you i would have been losted and wasted thank you. Email Him Through his email address... spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com please make sure you contact him for any financial difficulties okay...What a powerful man such as Dr Zuma zuk.. he is so much powerful..\\ email him for any difficulties.. spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com His whatsapp +15068001647

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patiala m legitimate
Aug 8, 2021

Do you need a Loan? Are you looking for Finance? Are you looking for Money to enlarge your business? I think you have come to the right place. We offer Cash at low interest rate. Interested people should please contact us on For immediate response to your application, Kindly reply to us at (Whats App) number:+919394133968 patialalegitimate515@gmail.com Mr Jeffery

Walter George
Walter George
Oct 20, 2021

Hello everyone, my name is Walter George I am so overwhelmed with joy all thanks to Dr Wale spell. My Wife  left me for another man a few years back and I was very devastated because I never did anything wrong to her, I was left with my two kids and a job that pays little. I was almost giving up until I saw a testimony online about Dr Wale and I decided to contact him. I explained my problem to him and he assured me I'll see a positive result after 24 hours, surprisingly my Wife came back the day after the spell begging me to forgive her and promised to never leave. My Wife has been back for 6 months now and we've never had any issues, am glad I didn't doubt Dr Wale cause he sure can solve any problems with fast relief you can also contact him for help now WhatsApp/Text him: +1(978) 406-9575 or Email him at everlastingspellcast@gmail.com or visit his website  https://everlastingspellcaster.website2.me/

Lisa oney
Lisa oney
Oct 30, 2021

We can always make our relationship the best for us, life or career a successful as we desire, it only take you to put in the right effort and if you feel you need help then look for help. After my man left me heartbroken. I was lonely, devastated and sad luckily I was directed to a very kind and powerful man (Dr Akhigbe) who helped me brought back my man and now he loves me far more than ever am so happy with life now thank you so much. You can contact him on WhatsApp. +2349021374574.Or email him at drakhigbespellhome7@gmail.com.

Erwen wilson
Erwen wilson
Oct 30, 2021

LOVE SPELL FOR BROKEN RELATIONSHIP AND MARRIAGE WHATSAPP +19085174108 I am here to share with you my life experience on how a great man called Dr. Jumba saved me and my marriage. I have been Married & Barren for 5 years and I had no child. I have never been pregnant. I was a subject of laughter from my Friends & neighbors, I almost lost my marriage because of this issue. I was so confused that i did not know what to do until i came across this great Dr online and i contacted him at once i was scared weather it was going to work because i never believed things like this before, so i decided to give it a try and I did all what Dr jumba asked of me and today to my greatest surprise i took in the first time and I gave birth to a bouncing baby boy and now my marriage that was about crashing before is now restored. My husband now love and want me better, Am so happy for everything that have been happening in my life since i met this Dr jumba .I want to tell all the women/men out there who have a similar situation like mine, that the world is not over YET they should dry up their tears and contact this great man and their problem will be gone or are you also having other problems you can also contact wiccalovespelltools@gmail.com His spells is for a better life OR call his number +19085174108 or contact him on his website : https://drjumbaspellhome.wordpress.com blog : https://brokenmindmend.blogspot.com/

Nancy Brown
Nancy Brown
Nov 3, 2021

IT WORK 100%....I just got my Marriage fixed, I contacted a real spell caster that helped me change my husband’s heart to love and want me again, and he really did and now we are very happy together. My husband left me for another woman, This was just 3 years of our marriage. The most painful thing is that I was pregnant with our second baby. I wanted him back. I did everything within my reach to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so badly because of the love I had for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to my friend and she suggested that I should rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back , I had no choice than to try it. I messaged the spell caster called dr unity, and he assured me there was no problem and that everything will be okay before 11 hours. He cast the spell and surprisingly 11 hours later my husband called me. I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that had happened He wanted me to return to him. He also said he loved me so much. I was so happy and went to him that was how we started living together happily again.thanks to dr unity . if you are here and your Lover is turning you down, or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact Dr.Unity for help now.. Here his contact...WhatsApp him: +2348055361568 , Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com ,His website:https://reallovespell.wordpress.com

Liliana Moore
Liliana Moore
Nov 3, 2021

REAL AND EFFECTIVE LOVE SPELL CASTER TO BRING BACK EX LOVER URGENTLY My husband and I have been married for about 7 yrs now. We were happily married with two kids, a boy and a girl. 3 months ago, I started to notice some strange behavior from him and a few weeks later I found out that my husband is seeing someone. He started coming home late from work, he hardly cares about me or the kids anymore, Sometimes he goes out and doesn't even come back home for about 2-3 days. I did all I could to rectify this problem but all to no avail. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the Internet one day, I came across a website that suggested that Dr Jumba can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he did a spell for me. Two days later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promised never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. My family and I are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Jumba . If you need a spell caster that can cast a spell that truly works, I suggest you contact him. He will not disappoint you. This is his Email : wiccalovespelltools@gmail.com WhatsApp +19085174108 Website : https://drjumbaspellhome.wordpress.com

Wagner
Wagner
Nov 6, 2021

Are you interested in earning a consistent income through binary/forex trade? or crypto currency trading. An investment of $200 can get you a return of $2,570 in 7 days of trading Invest $1000 to earn $11,789 Invest $2000 to earn $22,789 Invest $3000 to earn $33,789 Invest $4000 to earn $43,789 It goes on and on The higher the investment, the higher the profits. Your investment is safe and secured and payouts assured 100%.    Reach out to him. Via WhatsApp: (+447883246472) Email : tdameritrade077@gmail.com

allen dave
allen dave
Nov 10, 2021

Investing online has been a main source of income, that's why knowledge plays a very important role in humanity, you don't need to over work yourself for money.All you need is the right information, and you could build your own wealth from the comfort of your home!Binary trading is dependent on timely signals, assets or controlled strategies which when mastered increases chance of winning up to 90%-100% with trading. It’s possible to earn $10,000 to $20,000 trading weekly-monthly in cryptocurrency(bitcoin) investment,just file a complaint with my broker. I had almost given up on everything about binary trading and never getting my lost funds back, till i met with him, with his help and guidance now i have my lost funds back to my bank account, gained more profit and I can now trade successfully with his profitable strategies and software!! Reach out to him on (innovationmarketsbinary.com) t.me/bernie_doran_fx for inquires

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blank atm card
Dec 7, 2021

We have specially programmed ATMs that can be used to withdraw money at ATMs, shops and points of sale. We sell these cards to all our customers and interested buyers all over the world, the cards have a withdrawal limit every week.The programmed ATM card withdraw money from each ATM but have a withdrawal limit every week, only your PIN code is in it, it is a high-tech card system. The PROGRAMMED ATM card works on all card-based ATMs, anywhere in the world. -hack into any kind of phone _Increase Credit Scores _western union, bitcoin and money gram hacking _criminal records deletion_BLANK ATM/CREDIT CARDS _Hacking of phones(that of your spouse, boss, friends, and see whatever is being discussed behind your back) _Security system hacking...and so much more. Contact us now and get whatever you want at Email:creditcards.creditscoreupgrade@gmail.com whatsapp:+1785 279 3047

Kunal Kathuria
Kunal Kathuria
Dec 8, 2021

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Mohammed
Mohammed
Dec 9, 2021

My name is Mohammed Ahsan I'm a financial Consultant of a reputable firm Operating out of the United Kingdom we provide Discrete Financial, Services for High Net Worth CEO's/Executives of Corporation & Senior Government Officials globally. What we do is Legal & within the ambit of the law but following the Leakage of the Infamous United Kingdom Papers & subsequent threat by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) International Criminal Court (ICC) Below is what my Sender can offer. 1, MT103 gpi automatic 2, MT103 wire transfer 3, MT103 TT 4, MT103/202 manual download 5, SBLC lease and Purchase All bank instrument will be done via bank officer to bank officer, Receiver has to provide bank officer details on DOA all brokers are welcome and guarantee of there payment after successful deal kindly send me a message via email and WhatsApp. Email: mohammedahsan877@gmail.com WhatsApp- +19893413179

Sorina Jeffery
Sorina Jeffery
Dec 10, 2021

Are you looking for Finance? Are you looking for fast cash to enlarge your business Interested people should please contact us reply to us (Whats App) number: +919394133968 patialalegitimate515@gmail.com Mr Sorina

james SMITH
james SMITH
Dec 15, 2021

I just have to introduce this hacker that I have been working with him on getting my credit score been boosted across the Equifax, TransUnion and Experian report. He made a lot of good changes on my credit report by erasing all the past eviction, bad collections and DUI off my credit report history and also increased my FICO score above 876 across my three credit bureaus report you can contatc him for all kind of hacks . Email him here via Email him here via hackintechnology@gmail.com or whatsapp Number: ++1 410 635 0697.

Clive Viegas
Clive Viegas
Dec 22, 2021

Sir, can you advice when would a master announce Abandon Ship?

Karen09
Karen09
Jan 1, 2022

Hi everyone, my name is Karen! Top Secret Way To Win Lottery With The Help Of A Magic spell caster called Dr. Okosisi. I requested a lottery spell, and he cast the spell and sent me the winning lottery number. Now I am a proud lottery winner with the help of Dr. Okosisi. I won $1,000,000.00 ( One Million Dollars) Thank you so much sir for dedicating your time to cast the Lottery spell for me. I am extremely grateful for the Lottery spell you did for me. You can contact him now for your own winning numbers. Website: https://spellservicetemple.com/faq/ Email: spellservicetemple@gmail.com WhatsApp him: +1 (901) 235-9551 Karen

Mary Evans
Mary Evans
Jan 6, 2022

I want to say a big thanks to Dr. Okosisi for helping me to win the lottery. I won ($1,000,000.00) My heart was filled with Joy and happiness when I won the lottery. All thanks goes to Dr Okosisi for his good work he did for me that made me win the lottery. It has been hard for me to earn a living over the years of hard labor and suffering. I always pray to God to help me find a way to hit the lottery, because that was all I put my hope on. I always play the lottery daily, buy different lottery tickets, pay for online tips and others, but all was in vain, no good result, until one day I found this great man Dr Okosisi. On the internet, he is a magic voodoo Doctor, who helps to cast the lottery spell, as was described in the article. I contacted him too because I want to hit the lottery. Dr. Okosis helped me to cast the spell, and behold I won ONE MILLION DOLLARS. Truly you are the best and your spell is genuine and costs no harm. I got my bills paid and my debt cleared. I am making this known to every one of you who have been trying all day to win the lottery, believe me this is the only way to win the lottery with a better price, this is the real contact we all have been searching for. Contact him now. WhatsApp number: +1 (901) 235-9551 Email: spellservicetemple@gmail.com Website: https://spellservicetemple.com/faq/

Ann Kelley
Ann Kelley
Jan 6, 2022

MOST POWERFUL AND TRUSTED LOVE SPELL CASTER 2022 Hello ladies and gentlemen Happy New Year. I must make this testimony known to all. I've contacted many spell casters without seeing any result. I just wished I contacted Dr Jumba first, I got the best from you Dr Jumba. My husband was gone for a year and I went everywhere and other spell casters for help but no result until my friend introduced me to Dr. Jumba after the Love Spell was done, I finally got a call from him. His spells worked wonders and my husband is back full of love. It's a miracle! He suddenly came back with flowers saying that i should forgive him, i was truly flabbergasted and shocked when my husband knelt down begging for forgiveness and for me to accept him back.. I'm really short of words and joyful, you are a God sent to me and my entire family.. And now I am a joyful woman once again. Thank you so much Dr. Jumba. To everyone who is looking for a real spell caster should contact Dr Jumba directly on his Email : wiccalovespelltools@gmail.com or wiccalovespelltools@yahoo.com see more reviews about him on his website: https://drjumbaspellhome.wordpress.com WhatsApp: +1 (908) 517-4108

Shannon Mattingly
Shannon Mattingly
Jan 8, 2022

Please read and also contact Dr Unity if you need a powerful love spell to fix your broken relationship... I met a Powerful Spell caster called Dr Unity, He is Real, Honest and Genuine.. He helped me get my lover back, there is no bad or negative effect.The Psychic uses white Magic and he helped me get my Lover back, it worked after 11 hours.. My lover came back to me, apologized for leaving and now we are back together and as happy as ever… I will encourage and recommend anyone to contact the spell caster and ask him for help.. He does all kinds of spells asides love spells. just tell him your situation and he will help you…Here his contact...WhatsApp him: +2348055361568 , Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com ,His website:https://reallovespell.wordpress.com Shannon Mattingly Washington, DC (USA)

Yanda Carter
Yanda Carter
19 hours ago

I’m so excited my broken Marriage has been restored. “We recently made up, even though it was difficult. It’s been more than a month now, and everything feels like it’s returned to normal. He has began to treat me better, and it’s been a healing process for both of us. The nightmare that had lasted for almost 2 years before we broke up is finally over. It’s like we fell in love all over again! We’ve both put the past behind us, and are trying to move forward – and for the first time in a long time, the future looks a lot brighter. I can’t express in words how grateful I am Dr Jumba! It’s like we’ve finally rediscovered those things about each other that made us fall in love in the first place. All of the worrying and stress has simply vanished. Thank you Dr Jumba for saving my broken Marriage and brought my husband back to me!”. Me and my husband are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Jumba. If you have any problem contact Dr Jumba now and i guarantee you that he will help you contact him through : wiccalovespelltools@gmail.com or +19085174108 website : https://drjumbaspellhome.wordpress.com

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