safety-culture-ingredients_opt

Have you ever watched a cookery show where they teach you how to cook a dish?

If you had your eyes on that kind of show for a split second, you would know that the first thing they tell you is “what all ingredients would you need to cook that dish”.

ingredients Safety culture

To start with the concept of safety culture is not so much different.

We need to know the ingredients and we need to get all these ingredients on the table before we can even start.

safety-culture-list

So what is the safety culture made up of? We will know this if we know what exactly we are trying to cook with safety culture.

Safety culture concept: What are we cooking?

So what exactly are we trying to achieve with the safety culture concept?

All we want is to have the people willingly follow company procedures. Without being forced to do it.

Isn’t it?

Because if everyone followed procedures, safety would be guaranteed.

Yes, it is as simple as it seems.

But while the outcome looks simple, the process to get there is not.

Making people follow all the company procedures is quite a difficult task, especially in today’s world where everyone is google genius.

And when seafarers do not follow safety procedures and guidelines, it does not always mean something is wrong with the seafarers.

There are other elements of safety culture that could be wrong, rather than just people.

So what are the elements of safety culture?

What is the safety culture made up of?

Broadly, there are three elements that make the safety culture. These are

safety-culture-factors

Now don’t get perplexed by these heavy terms.

I will make it as simple as I can.

1. Safety management system

If we want people to follow the company procedures, the procedures need to be made for people who have to follow these.

If the procedures are not made for them, irrespective of how good seafarers you have or how high salaries you pay them, they would not follow these procedures.

Seafarers should be able to connect with the procedures. They need to believe in these procedures.

Let me give you a real-life example.

I know a well-known ship management company that came up with a strange procedure in their SMS after an anchoring related incident.

This procedure required every master to seek the permission of the marine superintendent before anchoring.

Only a handful among hundreds of Masters followed this procedure.

The point I am trying to make is: no matter how good or bad a policy/procedure is, it is of no use if no one is following it or worse no one wants to follow it.

A Good safety management system

If we want to have a good safety culture, we need to have a good safety management system.

And a good safety management system is not the one that is good for the company but is the one that its users (seafarers) believe is good.

The procedures need to be simple, easy to grasp, and easy to follow. The procedures need to be as close as possible to how the seafarers actually work.

For example, what would be safer among these two situations

  • Company procedures require 20 points checklist for enclosed space entry and no one follows it to the level that even the gas check before entry is also not performed.
  • The company just requires 3 points before enclosed space entry. The gas check of the compartment, carrying a walkie-talkie and a person standby near the entrance of the compartment: Every seafarer religiously following this.

And if you are wondering about a third option which is everyone following 20 points enclosed space entry checklist: let me be clear, this option hardly exists unless, on a vessel, the number of enclosed space entries is only a few per year.

In any case, I am not debating here which procedure is right or wrong. I am just debating which one among the two is safer.

And the above example is over-simplified to get to the point I am making.

It is better to have simplified procedures that everyone follows than to have perfect procedures that no one follows.

And believe me when I say this. The problem with the Safety management system in the maritime industry is that these are perfect. Perfect to the extent that these are not easy to follow.

P.S.: I will cover “what a good Safety management system would look like” in detail in the different blogs.

2. Psychological Factors

Psychology of the seafarers and shore staff is an important element of the safety culture.

For example, let us say we have a good safety management system in which procedures are simple and easy to follow.

Would it mean the people will always follow the procedures?

Well, not necessarily!!!

Psychological factors such as seafarer’s perceptions regarding safety also influence compliance.

For example, think of a person with the perception that if it is God’s will, the incidents will happen anyways.

A seafarer with that perception will have risk-taking behavior and irrespective of how good the SMS is, may not follow the procedures.

This is called Fatalism.

In his study on safety culture on tankers, Jon Ivor Havold found Fatalism as an important factor for safety culture.

Fatalism-safety-culture-1

Psychological factors include many such perceptions that affect safety behavior.

These perceptions include seafarer’s perception of

  • Management’s commitment to safety
  • Training provided to them, and
  • the work environment

The points are simple.

Perception of management’s commitment to safety

If seafarers think that the company is not serious about safety, they will not be serious either.

But it is not about if the company is actually serious or not, it is the perception of the seafarer’s that matters.

perception-about-safety

Perception of the effectiveness of the training

The same goes for the safety training provided to the seafarers.

If seafarers have the perception that the training being provided to them would in no way help them in being safe, the training will not contribute to the safety culture and overall safety onboard ships.

Again, it is all about the perception of the seafarers about training than the training itself.

Perception of work environment

Perception about the work environment also plays an important role in safety culture.

As per the seafarers working on ships, does the work environment onboard ships support the safety culture?

Do they think they have sufficient crew according to the trade as well as the condition of the vessel?

Does the crew feel physically or mentally tired?

These factors affect the safety culture because physically or mentally tired seafarers cannot be the agent for safety culture.

There are many factors that influence these perceptions. All these are covered under a broad term “Psychological Safety”.

P.S.: I will cover “psychological safety” in more detail in a different blog.

3. Behavioral factors

Once we have taken care of the first two elements of safety culture, it all comes down to the actual behavior of the seafarers.

Behavior-based safety can be defined as an approach to managing the people side of safety.

So even when everything else is perfect, seafarers may still behave in unsafe manners.

But why would they do that?

Let us understand this with a common example of the E/R crew not wearing safety helmets while working in the engine room.

In this case, behavioral safety is about understanding this behavior of the engine room crew.

Not wearing the helmet may cause head injury but there are also chances that nothing would happen.

But not wearing helmet provides immediate and definite rewards, which is comfort and ease of doing work.

So the E/R crew trade-off the safety for these conveniences.

Let us take another example.

A deck officer has to read a pressure gauge reading on the main deck which would only take 15 seconds.

But getting ready with the proper PPE for that would take about 10-15 minutes.

The deck officer may trade-off his safe behavior to save about 10-15 minutes of his time.

And guess what, he/she would also have a feeling of being rewarded in the form of the increase in productivity or simply with the save of time.

The point is that people do not behave in an unsafe manner just because they are insane.

They behave in a manner that they do because it seems to them the more preferable option to complete the task.

Managing behavioral factors aims to change this preference.

If we are able to change their behavior in such a way that the seafarers prefer safe ways to complete a task, we can expect safety standards to improve.

But changing the behavior is not a simple task.

That is where terms like behavior-based safety (BBS) and behavior management comes into play.

P.S.: I will write about “how to manage the seafarer’s behavior to improve safety” in a different blog.

Conclusion

If we wish to improve safety standards onboard our ships, we need to invest our time in improving safety culture.

And before we can even begin with safety culture, we need to understand what it is made up of.

The concept of safety culture is not difficult to understand but is difficult to implement.

A good safety culture brings a sense of self-regulation among seafarers with regard to safety.

But to be able to do that a company needs to have a good safety management system. The one that can easily be followed.

Next, the seafarers need to have a good perception of everything related to safety.

They should be able to believe in the company’s commitment to safety.

They should have a good perception of the safety training that they go through.

And finally, they should have a good perception of the work environment onboard ships.

But even when we have a good SMS and good perception of the safety-related matters in the company, it still requires seafarers to behave in safe manners.

The company needs to manage the safety behavior of the seafarers effectively to improve safety culture onboard their ships.

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Capt Rajeev Jassal

About Capt Rajeev Jassal

Capt. Rajeev Jassal has sailed for over 20 years mainly on crude oil, product and chemical tankers. He holds MBA in shipping & Logistics degree from London. He has done extensive research on quantitatively measuring Safety culture onboard and safety climate ashore which he believes is the most important element for safer shipping.

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41 Comments

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May 21, 2020

Another master piece sir....i love to read your blogs, so much informative...God bless you sir...keep doing great work to enlighten us.....

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Jessica Smith
Aug 24, 2021

After being in relationship with Wilson for seven years,he broke up with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that don’t believed in spell, I had no choice than to try it, I meant a spell caster called Dr Zuma zuk and I email him, and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before three days, that my ex will return to me before three days, he cast the spell and surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there. Anybody could need the help of the spell caster, his email: spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com or WhatsApp him +15068001647 blog: spiritualherbal.blogspot.com you can email him if you need his assistance in your relationship or anything. CONTACT HIM NOW FOR SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PROBLEMS

Veronica Forbs
Veronica Forbs
Sep 1, 2021

Hello, I want to write a little review about the good work of Doctor OJAMO, who cured me from HSV 1&2 for just 2 week with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be cured again and have a good life like others, I always regretted the day I got diagnose with this virus, I become lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it, Well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I went online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found Dr. OJAMO email dr.ojamoherbalhome@gmail.com on a blog of someone who was cured by him of the same herpes, so I quickly contacted him for help and explained all my pains to him, he told me not to worry about it there is a cure for real, I never believe until he sent me the herbs when I ordered for it and I got it within 5 working days that is how I took the medicine for 2 weeks and the following week I went for a test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life, I am so happy right now, and forever grateful, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through his WhatsApp +2349077406037 or email address:: dr.ojamoherbalhome@gmail.com check his website for more info https://drojamoherbalhome.wixsite.com/welcometodrojamoherb

Brown Sharlene
Brown Sharlene
Sep 1, 2021

I am so happy, I never believe I will be this happy again, after suffering from Herpes (HSV) which make me lose my job. I never felt sick or have any symptom, till all workers were ask to bring their doctor report, that was how I got tested and found out that am HSV positive, I lose my job because they believed its STD and is incurable. I was so depress and Devastated thinking of committing suicide. I explained this to my friend and she consoled me and gave me hope, she told me about one African Doctor who has the ability to cure diseases with Natural medicinal herbs and roots for 21 day. She directed me to Dr. OJAMO and I contacted his email at dr.ojamoherbalhome@gmail.com I contacted this doctor and told him about my condition and this traditional doctor prepared and ship a product to me and told me to use it for just 21 days and after I finish taking the product he told me to go for check up which I did and to my greatest surprise my results were negative, I did the test at three different hospital just to be sure and I was indeed cured from Herpes (HSV). Please help me share this news to others and different people living with STDs and other diseases. Email DOCTOR OJAMO via dr.ojamoherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or WhatsApp his mobile number on +2349077406037 check his website for more info https://drojamoherbalhome.wixsite.com/welcometodrojamoherb

Denis Clara
Denis Clara
Sep 3, 2021

How I Got My Ex Husband Back…Greetings to everyone reading this testimony. I have been rejected by my husband after 15years of marriage just because another woman He left me and the kids to suffer. one day when i was reading through some websites. I saw testimonies on how people thank Dr Obinna for helping a lot of people get their broken marriages fixed back after divorced and breakup. He restored their marriage and relationship back as one. So i decided to contact this great man because i can't afford to loose my husband any more I love my husband so much I contact this man HE helped both men and women, boyfriend and girlfriend to get back their ex lovers and even fixed and restored their broken home back to happiness as one. I sent him a message on: obinnaspelltemple@yahoo.com and I waited patiently for his reply. It was about an hour or 2.When he replied to me He told me what to do that will help me bring my husband back to me and after 2 days as I share my testimonies with you my husband is back to me and my kids. I am glad to let you all know that this spell caster has the power to bring lovers back. because I am now in big happiness with my husband. Thanks to Dr Obinna. If you need any kind of solution to solve and win your health issues, broken relationships, or broken marriage problems. You can reach him on: obinnaspelltemple@yahoo.com

Hailey Bradwell
Hailey Bradwell
Sep 16, 2021

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susan
susan
Sep 18, 2021

There is no other form of medication that can cure herpes simplex virus permanently apart from natural herbal remedy, i was once tested positive for herpes simplex, it was the herbal remedy that i got https://dr-ofua-ofure-herbal-healing-home.business.site by Dr Ofua Ofure that help me get cured permanently with no side effect, am cured permanently no more outbreak and no more itching's, i will advice that anyone who is suffering from herpes simplex virus or any other STDs/STIs related diseases/infections as well as other health threatening diseases or ailment, should please make use of herbal medicine from Dr Ofua Ofure you can call/whatsapp +2347059497969 or email on thegreatherbalhealinghome@gmail.com or visit his website on the link above.

Hidago Daniel
Hidago Daniel
Sep 22, 2021

I never use to believe in lottery winning spell until i met Lord Zuma who help me to win the lottery number, This is a great testimony on how i won $100,000 in my play lottery in the mega million lottery jackpot , I took an advice from someone called Wilson the person who talked about this great voodoo spell caster called Lord Zuma the person placed a testimonies on a blog also on a facebook saying how Lord Zuma helped him win the lottery by sending him the winning number i was curious and i thought it was all joke not until i contacted this spell caster to know for myself how this work cause i have spend a lot buying tickets and i never win. I contacted him and he told me the necessary thing that need to be done and i did it and he told me to wait for 2days and truly he gave me the winning numbers to play the lottery which i did, Can you believe my name was the first among winners. He told me (my son all i need you to do for me is make sure that you share this testimonies to others so that they can also win the lottery cause i do not have much time to spell on the internet) so that is why i am sharing this testimony with you that if you want to win the lottery this is the way online tips can not help you,, i will forever be grateful to you, Email him for your own winning lottery numbers, He alone have the winning numbers to win the lottery, Because he is a gifted human being who is fully blessed to help other who are in need, All you need to do is to contact this man and make your life easy and wealthy. His email address: spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com and whatsapp number +15068001647 For all problems and pains to be over i win my game.

John keck
John keck
Sep 30, 2021

I'm 61 years old.  I contracted hpv in 2011' I has be taking lot treatment for it and embarrassed some months ago the wart stated coming out seriously, I used lot recommendation because there was lot warts around my anus and was so . but today I'm totally happy I got the virus eliminated by using natural treatment from Dr Onokun herbal center after his treatment I got cured. all the warts went away' seriously believed Dr. Onokun he have the cure for human papillomavirus because he has eliminated hpv been in my body since 2011, Dr. Onokun make it possible for me. Here is Dr. Onokun email: Dronokunherbalcure@gmail.com or page at:  https://www.facebook.com/naturaltreatmentcenter1 or WhatsApp him via +1 ( 323 ) 689 3594 he is welled capable of curing terrible diseases.

Cassie Bailey
Cassie Bailey
Oct 2, 2021

Hello I'm so happy sharing this, I still can’t thank you enough powerful Priest Elijah, My husband left for a younger lady because i was unable to give birth due to PCOS,I was so devastated i was lonely i cried a lot i even tried taking my life, Then my friend told me about this great man Priest Elijah who helped her made her marriage perfect, I also went online and did more research about him i was not too sure but i decided to give him a try he told me not to worry everything was going to be alright, He told me all i needed to pay which was a convenient fee and i did and he did his work and sent me video proof and told me to wait 24hrs that he will be back, The next morning to my greatest surprise it was Shawn my husband on his knees begging I'm so happy, It didn’t stop there, I'm proud to say that I'm 3 weeks pregnant thank you so much Priest Elijah I'm forever grateful contact him Email: universalspellhelp@gmail.com WhatsApp him +2347054380994 https://universalspellhelp.wixsite.com/priestelijah

judithkhanli
judithkhanli
Oct 3, 2021

Bexuniversal do sale nembutal online at a lower price as compare to other dealers around the market,Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital) is a member of the barbiturates drug class and is commonly used for Sedation and Status Epilepticus. Buy nembutal online (Pentobarbital) You can buy nembutal online (Pentobarbital) from us which will be delivered at your doorsteps in correspondent to the client given address, with assured and safety delivery on transit till its destination,,, I will also take the advantage to ask for your permission to join our 179.3k members TELEGRAM GROUP

judithkhanli
judithkhanli
Oct 3, 2021

Bexuniversal do sale nembutal online at a lower price as compare to other dealers around the market,Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital) is a member of the barbiturates drug class and is commonly used for Sedation and Status Epilepticus. Buy nembutal online (Pentobarbital) You can buy nembutal online (Pentobarbital) from us which will be delivered at your doorsteps in correspondent to the client given address, with assured and safety delivery on transit till its destination,,, I will also take the advantage to ask for your permission to join our 179.3k members TELEGRAM GROUP

Cristy Davis
Cristy Davis
Oct 12, 2021

Hi everyone, after 10 years of playing lotto game i am finally living my dream life, all thanks to Dr Dominion i will never forget that great man never in my entire life, i am who i am today all because of him he gave me a winning numbers to play and he prepared a lotto winning spell for me that helped me won my mega million. thank you so much Dr Dominion for what you have done for my entire generations, i will forever be grateful. you can reach out to him on his info: Email: dominionlottospelltemple@gmail.com WhatsApp: +16574277820

Ruth Breen
Ruth Breen
Oct 16, 2021

It still feels incredible that my life has changed and I thank Lord Zakuza everyday for his help. It is the best feeling in the world knowing that I am financially secure. Lord Zakuza prayed and prepared a lottery spell for me and he gave me some numbers to play on the Euromillions game. I played the game and I was sent an email after 3 days regarding that I was the winner of ONE MILLION POUNDS. So I rang them up and they confirmed that I was the very lucky one to have won on the EuroMillions Raffle draw. I was shocked, surprised and couldn't believe what my eyes saw and what my ears were earing and I stopped work at where I was a working as a midwife and ever since then, I have been winning in every game I played whenever I decide to. My life and that of my family has changed ever since that day and I want to say a very big thank you to Lord Zakuza. WhatsApp him for help via +1 (740) 573-9483 or email: ( lordzakuza7 @ gmail. com ) or visit his website on: lordzakuzaspells.com

Walter George
Walter George
Oct 20, 2021

Hello everyone, my name is Walter George I am so overwhelmed with joy all thanks to Dr Wale spell. My Wife  left me for another man a few years back and I was very devastated because I never did anything wrong to her, I was left with my two kids and a job that pays little. I was almost giving up until I saw a testimony online about Dr Wale and I decided to contact him. I explained my problem to him and he assured me I'll see a positive result after 24 hours, surprisingly my Wife came back the day after the spell begging me to forgive her and promised to never leave. My Wife has been back for 6 months now and we've never had any issues, am glad I didn't doubt Dr Wale cause he sure can solve any problems with fast relief you can also contact him for help now WhatsApp/Text him: +1(978) 406-9575 or Email him at everlastingspellcast@gmail.com or visit his website  https://everlastingspellcaster.website2.me/

Ruth Breen
Ruth Breen
Oct 21, 2021

It still feels incredible that my life has changed and I thank Lord Zakuza everyday for his help. It is the best feeling in the world knowing that I am financially secure. Lord Zakuza prayed and prepared a lottery spell for me and he gave me some numbers to play on the Euromillions game. I played the game and I was sent an email after 3 days regarding that I was the winner of ONE MILLION POUNDS. So I rang them up and they confirmed that I was the very lucky one to have won on the EuroMillions Raffle draw. I was shocked, surprised and couldn't believe what my eyes saw and what my ears were earing and I stopped work at where I was a working as a midwife and ever since then, I have been winning in every game I played whenever I decide to. My life and that of my family has changed ever since that day and I want to say a very big thank you to Lord Zakuza. WhatsApp him for help via +1 (740) 573-9483 or email: ( lordzakuza7 @ gmail. com ) or visit his website on: lordzakuzaspells.com

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