radar-plotting

Have you been doing radar plotting?

I know that the navigators get fed up with this irritating question during third-party inspections.

And when the navigator is just about to answer that question with a Yes,  it’s frustrating for them to find that there are no radar plotting sheets onboard.

If this has happened to you too, then do not worry. It is not very uncommon sight these days.

The reason some of us do not practice radar plotting is one or both of these.

  • We do not think it would help us in any way
  • We do not know how to do it

In this post, I will definitely be discussing how to do radar plotting. But before we start on that, we need to agree on the point if all this is really required and is the radar plotting helpful to the navigators in any way.

is Radar Plotting helpful?

In one word the answer is “Yes”.

When and how?

Well, radar plotting is an alternative for ARPA and thus it will be handy when ARPA is not working.

Let us assume a very realistic situation.

ARPA of one (or both) of your radars stopped working in the mid sea. Of course, the vessel is not complying with the SOLAS.

Master will report the fact to the company and company will seek dispensation from the flag to sail and arrive at next port without working ARPA function of the radar.

flag-dispensation

It is understandable that flag will not deny the dispensation if the ARPA can only be repaired by shore support or by providing a spare part.

The flag will give the dispensation on a condition that the navigators will use radar plotting for all the targets on the radar.

Now believe me when I say this.

If you haven’t been practicing radar plotting, you may find it difficult to navigate the ship safely in this situation.

This is not the only situation where navigators need to rely on radar plotting.

Even when your ARPA is working, you may notice that the radar is not holding on to the some of the targets. By this I mean, the acquired vector is moving away from the target.

A quick radar plotting for that target can give the clear picture of the movement of the target.

The only issue is that like the celestial sight, to be effective radar plotting too need practice.

Now that we understand the significance of radar plotting, let us understand how to do it.

Radar plotting

We already discussed that radar plotting is an alternative to the ARPA.

With radar plotting, we aim to get all the information that ARPA can give. These pieces of information are

  • CPA & TCPA of targets
  • Course & speed of the target

Let us see how to get this information by radar plotting.

CPA & TCPA of targets by radar plotting

This is how a radar plotting sheet looks like.

radar-plotting-sheet

When we see the target on the radar, we take the bearing and range of the target and note down the time of observation.

We then plot this on the radar plotting sheet.

let us say we noted following bearing/range of a target at 1800Hrs LT.

bearing-range-of-target-radar-plotting

Let us plot this on the radar plotting sheet. This point of first observation is named point “O”.

radar-plotting-point-O

Now after some interval, take the 2nd and 3rd set of observations of the target and plot it on the radar plotting sheet.

Here are our 2nd and 3rd observations.

range-bearing-second-third-radar-plotting

Plot these on the radar plotting sheet and extend the line joining all three points. Name the point of last observation as point “A”.

radar-plotting-sheet-line-OA

This is the line of relative approach of the target towards our vessel which we have assumed at the center of the sheet.

Now for CPA, we need to find the closest point of the line of approach to the center.

To do that just draw a line perpendicular to the line of approach and measure the distance of this line from the scale in the radar plotting sheet.

CPA-from-radar-plotting

The CPA here is around 0.8NM.

To calculate TCPA, we just need to calculate the time required to reach at point “C” considering it took 12 minutes to cover distance OA.

To do that measure the distance CA and that would be 5.8NM in this case.

Now with simple mathematics calculate the time the target would take to cover 5.8NM with the relative approach speed.

This would be the TCPA. In this case, the TCPA would be 35 Minutes (at 1847 hrs LT).

TCPA-radar-plotting

Course & speed of targets by radar plotting

Next is to find the course & speed of the target.

To find that, from point “O” draw your course in opposite direction and cut the distance your ship has traveled for the time period of “OA” (12 minutes in this case).

Let us say your course is 045 degrees and speed is 12 knots.

In 12 minutes your ship with speed 12 knots will travel 2.4 NM. SO from point “O” draw a line in direction 225 degrees and measuring 2.4 NM.

Name this point as “W”, such that WO is your course.

WO-radar-plotting

Now join W & A. WA is the course and speed of the target vessel.

Measure the distance WA. This is the distance covered by the target in 12 minutes.

With simple mathematics, calculate the distance it would travel in 60 minutes to get the speed.

WA-radar-plotting

In this case, the course of the target is 300 degrees and speed is 7 Knots (WA measures 1.4 NM).

The aspect of the target

There is one more thing that we can get from radar plotting.

Aspect of the target.

There are two areas that we need to explore in this.

One what is the aspect and how to calculate the Aspect of the target. And second what is the significance of the aspect.

First the definition of aspect.

The aspect of a vessel is the relative bearing of own vessel from the target vessel.

For the starters, this is what the difference between the true bearing and relative bearing.

relative-and-true-bearing

Here is the simplified picture of what aspect of the target vessel is.

aspect-of-vessel

And here is how it would look like with real situations.

aspect-of-vessel-real-situation

Now let us come back to the radar plotting sheet and the situation we have discussed so far and let us get the aspect of the target vessel.

To get that,

  • Join own ship’s position (which is at the center of the plotting sheet) to the target vessel’s last position (which is at point “A”).
  • Extend the course line of the target vessel (Line WA).

The angle between these two lines is the aspect of the target vessel.

Asoect-of-vessel-from-radar-plotting

The aspect of the vessel is written as 0 degrees to 180 degrees Red or green.

If we will be able to see the red light of the target vessel, then the aspect will be “Red” and the value will be anything from 0 degrees to 180 degrees.

Same applies if we will be able to see the green light of the target vessel.

Just to put this in perspective, here is what will be the aspect of the target vessel with different headings.

aspect-of-the-vessel-different-headings

If you had noticed, I have denoted the own ship with just a dot and have not shown the heading of own ship.

This is because when calculating the aspect of the target vessel, own ship’s heading is irrelevant.

Most navigators would get confused if we show own vessel’s heading too.

The significance of Aspect of the vessel

In radar plotting, we use the relative approach of the targets.

It is the easiest way to find the CPA of the targets. But the issue with the relative approach is that we do not know with certainty the angle at which the target vessel is approaching us.

The course of the target can give us this information but we need to compare this with our own course or heading to get a sense of angle of approach of the targets.

With the aspect of the vessel, it becomes easy and quick to understand the direction of approach of the target.

For example, compare these two statements.

  • A target is 2 points on our starboard side with course 265 degrees and our course is 330 degrees.
  • A target is 2 points on our starboard side with the aspect of around 60 degrees red.

Which statement would give a clearer picture of the angle of approach of the target?

When answering this question do not forget to consider that you just have these numbers. You do not have this information plotted on the radar screen as ARPA is unavailable.

If you think a bit, you will notice that it is much easier with the second statement.

Let me clarify it with a realistic example.

We are on the bridge with inoperational ARPA and I point to a target on the radar screen and ask this question to the duty officers…

Where is this ship headed?

Two duty officers present do the radar plotting and reply with different answers.

  • The first duty officer replies, “her course is 265 degrees”.
  • The second duty officer replies “her aspect is 60 degrees red”.

Which information do you think I will use? Again, remember we have inoperational ARPA.

I would use the second information because with this I clearly and quickly know where that ship is heading.

easy-with-target-aspect

In simple words, the aspect of a target describes how much of the target vessel’s profile we will be able to see.

If the aspect is “90 degreed Red”, this means that we will be able to see the complete port side profile of the target vessel.

If the aspect is 0 degrees, this means that we will be able to see the front profile of the target vessel.

Now that we know exactly what the aspect of the target is, we can use this in a number of other ways.

Identifying the targets you must monitor

If we are sailing in moderate or heavy traffic area without ARPA, it becomes extremely important that we identify (& segregate) the targets that are passing clear and the one that is not clear.

Applying the below principle is one of the ways.

  • All targets with Red aspect on our port side and with green aspect on our starboard side are usually “no danger targets”.
  • All targets with red aspect on our starboard side and with green aspect on out port side are the targets we need to watch out for.

Here is the example of the first point.

safe-and-unsafe-targets-radar-plotting-aspect

This does not in any way mean that we should not monitor the targets with red aspects targets on our port side (and green aspects on our starboard side).

The above statements help to a certain extent to prioritize the targets.

If we understand the concept of the aspect of the target, we can devise our own ways to use this information during navigation.

Change of course to maintain certain CPA

We now know the basics of radar plotting and it is time to move on to little-advanced ways of using radar plotting.

Let us say we did the radar plotting of a target to find that the CPA is 0.8NM but we want to maintain 2NM CPA with this target.

The best way to increase the CPA is to alter our course. But how much course we must alter to maintain that CPA?

Radars have the functionality called “Trial maneuver” where you can set the new course to see the new CPA/TCPA with all the acquired targets.

This is a wonderful tool to know the course/speed to change to maintain a certain CPA with a target.

But this functionality is only required for radars fitted on vessels more than 10000 GRT.

radar-trial-manoeuvre

But if our ARPA is not working or if we are on a ship less than 10000 GRT, radar plotting can do this job too.

Let us see how.

Let us take the same example we used earlier. Target’s CPA is 0.8 NM and we want to maintain CPA of 2.0 NM by changing our course.

radar-plot-initial-less-CPA

Draw the new line of approach from point A such that this line passes through 2NM radius (CPA 2NM).

new-line-of-approach-radar-plotting

Now as we are not changing our speed, the length WO will remain same.

So measure WO and from point W, mark a point O’ on new approach line such that length WO is equal to WO’.

Join points W and O’.

new-course-to-maintain-CPA-radar-plotting

WO’ is the new course that we must make to maintain CPA of 2NM with this target.

This is just one of the example. But we can use the radar plotting to solve situations like

  • How much speed must we reduce to maintain a certain CPA with the target?
  • How much speed must we reduce to maintain a certain CPA with the target if we also altered our course by 10 degrees to starboard?
  • How much course and/or speed the target must make to maintain a certain CPA with our vessel?
  • How much course must each vessel alter to maintain a certain CPA with each other?

I will briefly cover few other situations.

Reducing own speed to maintain certain CPA

reducing-speed-radar-plotting

 

  • From point “W” draw a line parallel to the new (desired) line of approach (Dotted line in above plot)
  • From point “A”, draw your opposite course. The point where it cuts the dotted line, name this point as W’.
  • From W’, draw the course of the target. Where it meets the desired line of approach, name this point as A’.
  • Measure O’W’. This needs to be the distance covered by own vessel in 12 minutes to maintain 2NM CPA. Calculate the required speed of own vessel based on that

Required course change by the target to maintain certain CPA

course-change-by-target-radar-plotting

  • As own course and speed remains same, from point A (also named O’ in the new triangle) draw your own course in opposite direction such that O’W’ is equal to OW.
  • From point W’, cut a point on new approach line such that W’A’ is equal to WA as the speed of the target is not changing.
  • Measure the angle of W’A’. This is the new course that target must alter to maintain CPA of 2NM.

Conclusion

With ARPA on board ships, the art of radar plotting is fading away.

But it is not that radar plotting is not relevant nowadays.

In situations like sailing with in-operational ARPA under flag dispensation, radar plotting will be of great help.

But if we haven’t been practicing radar plotting, it can’t effectively substitute ARPA in situations when it is desperately required to.

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Capt Rajeev Jassal

About Capt Rajeev Jassal

Capt. Rajeev Jassal has sailed for over 19 years mainly on crude oil, product and chemical tankers. He holds MBA in shipping & Logistics degree from London. He has done extensive research on quantitatively measuring Safety culture onboard and safety climate ashore which he believes is the most important element for safer shipping.

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64 Comments

Ankit Dubey
Ankit Dubey
May 15, 2018

Very interesting sir ..It would be a great help if you can make a blog covering the various Collison prevention situations and their relevant action .Thanks a lot sir.. awaiting your positive feedback!!

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
May 16, 2018

Thanks, Ankit. I will surely write on that.

FELIX
FELIX
Jun 11, 2019

Good morning capt Rajeev please what can i do the question says while steering 242 at a speed of 10knot the following observations were made 1.Time 0527 Brg297 Rng 8.4 2.Time 0533 Brg 297.5 Rng 6.8 3. Time 0539 Brg 298 Rng 5.2 Determine the following 1. Speed and course of target 2. CPA TCPA and time to CPA 3. WHAT actions are expected from both vessels 4. if own ship stop at 0545 what is new CPA and time of CPA .

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THANT ZIN
THANT ZIN
May 17, 2018

Dear Sir, Can I obtain CPA of a target while i only known range of target and vector is 30 minutes? If possible, please kindly answer.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Oct 14, 2018

It is two or more bearings of the target that is required to get the CPA.

Capt. Chander Vart
Capt. Chander Vart
May 19, 2018

Another very well written article from you Capt. Rajeev. Shall be of great assistance to navigating officers.Keep up the good work.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Oct 14, 2018

Thanks Capt Chander...

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ADELBERT PEREIRA
ADELBERT PEREIRA
May 22, 2018

Very well wriiten capt jessal , pls keep up the good work

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Oct 14, 2018

Glad you liked it...

Shahbaaz Ahmad
Shahbaaz Ahmad
May 27, 2018

Well written post sir, whole funda of radar is cleared, thnx alott for a wonderful post.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Oct 14, 2018

Glad you found it useful Shahbaaz...

Boris Andreevich
Boris Andreevich
Jun 5, 2018

Thank you Sir, very clear and interesting post, a lot of useful information.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Oct 14, 2018

Thanks Boris...

Mohammad Alriyati
Mohammad Alriyati
Jun 29, 2018

Thank You So Much Sir, Best And Easy Way Ever I Had Been See.

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Oct 14, 2018

Glad you liked it Mohammad...

naveen kumar
naveen kumar
Jul 20, 2018

thank you sir it was very help ful

Rajeev Jassal
Rajeev Jassal
Oct 14, 2018

Thanks Naveen...

HARDIK JUNEJA
HARDIK JUNEJA
Nov 1, 2018

Thank you sir, explained in very easy and simple way. Great work.....

Julius gabobga
Julius gabobga
Dec 4, 2018

Very interesting piece. thank so much

Kevin
Kevin
Dec 24, 2018

Thanks for the article, it has been very helpful. A question that has come up in my sample exams is: Question: after a bold alteration to starboard my new CPA is well over 3 Nm, how long do I need to hold this new course before I can return to my original course to maintain a CPA of 2 Nm. I really hope you can help me answer this question?

Jeffrey Tuckerman
Jeffrey Tuckerman
Feb 26, 2019

Thank you very much for this. I lost my radar plotting notes from college and wanted to revise it. This was perfect.

Navjyot Singh
Navjyot Singh
Mar 20, 2019

I have an exam in another 2days and i want to ask 3-4 questions to u regarding the ARPA. I have the pics of the questions too! It would be very appreciable if u can send me ur contact number sir!

Dhir singh
Dhir singh
Apr 19, 2019

Sir i always find your articles intersting. I want to correct you that here you denoted aspect 60 degree approx. but the correct aspect here is approx. 90 and exact value is 92.5 R. you have taken relative brng of target from our vessel but its relative brng of own vessel from target vessel. Thankyou sir for ur articles keep writing we find these very intersting.

ravneet singh
ravneet singh
Mar 10, 2020

Awesomely explained specially the aspect part, very stupendous effort.

Kalyana chakravathy
Kalyana chakravathy
Jun 23, 2020

Thank you sir you cleared all my doubts about radar plotting...

milos
milos
Jun 30, 2020

http://www.splashmaritime.com.au/Marops/data/text/Radartex/Radarplottex.pdf at least fix your example. the own vessel course given is wrong (045). no?

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Eugen BARSAN
Eugen BARSAN
Feb 9, 2021

First of all I want to congratulate you for your efforts to share practical knowledge in such a detailed way. After 25 years of teaching Radar Navigation, Radar plotting & use of ARPA at Constanta Maritime University I still can say that learning the use of ARPA without previously learning the basics of manual radar plotting is as been promoted from deck-hand up to OOW based only on years of on board practice without graduating any maritime school. Regarding the content of your article I just want to point something related to the practical use of target ship Aspect when you evaluate a traffic situation: • The fastest way to obtain the value of the aspect is by computing it (Asp = oppTB – TS Course) not by measuring the Aspect angle with the protractor. • The value of the Aspect is not very important. Important is the sign of the Aspect (Red or Green). Why? Because the OOW is analyzing mainly the close quarter situations (target ship(s) CPA is less than the safety distance). For these potentially dangerous targets the sign of the Aspect will show if the target ship is a Stand-On vessel or a Give Way vessel , as follows: • If the Aspect to an approaching target with a CPA smaller than the safety distance (ordered by the Master for that navigation area) is RED, than the target ship is a STAND ON VESSEL and our ship should manoeuver to avoid the dangerous ship • If the Aspect to an approaching target with a CPA smaller than the safety is GREEN, than the target ship is a GIVE WAY VESSEL and our ship should maintain course and speed (at least in the first stage of the encounter) This is the real IMPORTANCE of the Aspect. Regarding the analysis of the encounter between our ship and a dangerous target ship important is own ship true course and target ship true course, not the value of the Aspect. The OOW has to asses which are the type of encounter with the dangerous ship (crossing, head-on or overtaking). The encounter type in relation with COLREG Rules of the Road provisions are telling what the OOW will have to do if own ship is a Stand-On or Give-way vessel. That’s why the 1st thing that you have to draw on radar plotting sheet is the Own Ship Course (true). After plotting the observed positions to the target ship and determine the target ship true course it is easy to visualize on the plotting sheet how the target ship course line is interacting with the own ship course line and to define if it will be a crossing, head-on or overtaking encounter. It is the same way as you should proceed when you look at the ARPA radar screen and see the vectors of the plotted targets. You switch on TRUE VECTORS (if the ARPA radar is not already in TRUE MOTION mode) and assess how the true vectors of the plotted target are interacting (intersecting) with own ship heading line (ARPA radar working of course NUP or CUP). Hopping that I was not to boring I will rest here and wish you to continue to Keep Up the Good Work.

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Jessica Smith
Jessica Smith
Jul 11, 2021

After being in relationship with Wilson for seven years,he broke up with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that don’t believed in spell, I had no choice than to try it, I meant a spell caster called Dr Zuma zuk and I email him, and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before three days, that my ex will return to me before three days, he cast the spell and surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there. Anybody could need the help of the spell caster, his email: spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com or WhatsApp him +15068001647 blog: spiritualherbal.blogspot.com you can email him if you need his assistance in your relationship or anything. CONTACT HIM NOW FOR SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PROBLEMS

jessica stephen
jessica stephen
Jul 15, 2021

I am not sure I could have done it without you. I contacted a real spell caster that helped me change my husband’s heart to love and want me again, and he really did and now we are very happy together. My husband left me for another woman, This was just 3 years of our marriage. The most painful thing is that I was pregnant with our second baby. I wanted him back. I did everything within my reach to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so badly because of the love I had for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to my friend and she suggested that I should rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back , I had no choice than to try it. I messaged the spell caster called dr unity, and he assured me there was no problem and that everything will be okay before 11 hours. He cast the spell and surprisingly 11 hours later my husband called me. I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that had happened He wanted me to return to him. He also said he loved me so much. I was so happy and went to him that was how we started living together happily again.thanks to dr unity . if you are here and your Lover is turning you down, or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact Dr.Unity for help now.. Here his contact..WhatsApp him: +2348055361568 , Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com , Watch this YouTube channel to know how grateful I am https://youtube.com/shorts/rBPtBktMmtA?feature=share

putu dharma yoga
putu dharma yoga
Jul 29, 2021

COULD YOU PLEASE SHOW US THE INTERNATIONAL REGULATION WHICH TELLS US TO USE RADAR PLOTTING ON BOARD ?

Mrs. Santana Valdez
Mrs. Santana Valdez
Aug 3, 2021

i am giving this testimony cos l am happy My name is Mrs. Santana Valdez from Houston,taxes.i never believed in love spells or magic until i met this spell caster once. when i went to Canada in June 28th 2021 this year on a business summit. i meet a man called Dr Zuma zuk.He is powerful he could help you cast a spells to bring back my love's gone, misbehaving lover looking for some one to love you, bring back lost money and magic money spell or spell for a good job. i'm now happy & a living testimony cos the man i had wanted to marry left me 3 weeks before our wedding and my life was upside down cos our relationship has been on for 2 years. i really loved him, but his mother was against me and he had no good paying job. so when i met this spell caster, i told him what happened and explained the situation of things to him.. at first i was undecided, skeptical and doubtful, but i just gave it a try. and in 6 days when i returned to taxes, my boyfriend (is now my husband ) he called me by himself and came to me apologizing that everything had been settled with his mom and family and he got a new job interview so we should get married..i didn't believe it cos the spell caster only asked for my name and my boyfriends name and all i wanted him to do. well we are happily married now and we are expecting our little kid, and my husband also got a new job and our lives became much better. in case anyone needs the spell caster for some help, email address spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com Great Zuma zuk i thank you very much thank you in 1000000 times.. if not you i would have been losted and wasted thank you. Email Him Through his email address... spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com please make sure you contact him for any financial difficulties okay...What a powerful man such as Dr Zuma zuk.. he is so much powerful..\\ email him for any difficulties.. spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com His whatsapp +15068001647

liu wei
liu wei
Aug 11, 2021

Lottery is something majority of the people in the world want to win, not only winning the lottery, but they want to win big, i have been playing the lottery for couple of years now, but i haven,t really win big, personally i always think there is something behind all those winners who always win big, because my intense always tell me that every thing is possible, i manage to get in contact with one of the biggest lottery winner in the UK, i asked him about the success, and he referred me to a very powerful voodoo doctor, (Dr Lucas), he is indeed a great man who i explained to , without no hidden details , (i really want to win the lottery so bad ) he put to work and few days latter he gave me numbers that never fails , these numbers was what i played and i won £3,000000,00, 3 Million pounds , (Dr Lucas) is blessed , you too can change your life too with his help, contact Email: Drlucasspelltemple@gmail.com ..

Manuel Franco
Manuel Franco
Sep 4, 2021

I'm Manuel Franco from united States, I'm here to show gratitude and to let the world know how Dr Benjamin the great spell cast that change my life for good. It all started January 2019 when I lost my job and I was down financially and emotionally because I couldn't provide for my family as I used to when i had a job, so one fateful evening I was browsing on the internet when I saw series of testimonies on how Dr Benjamin had helped a lot of people win lottery by giving them the winning numbers, I contacted him the following morning and he assured me that he's gonna help me, he instructed me on what to do and I did exactly what I was told after some few hours he gave me the winning numbers and he also directed me on where to play, I played the lottery game with the numbers he gave me after few days the result came out and I won the $326 million on April 23, 2019 I claimed my winning and now I'm a millionaire all thanks to Dr Benjamin for turning my life around. As many of you there having financial problem Dr Benjamin is your final solution, you can reach him via his personal email drbenjaminlottospell711@gmail.com Or whatsapp him +13344539570

Herbert LOKO
Herbert LOKO
Oct 2, 2021

Very well explained ! I always enjoy reading you. Thanks a lot.

lucas mike
lucas mike
Oct 4, 2021

I am very happy to share these great testimonies,The best thing that has ever happened in my life is how I won the lottery. I am a man who believes that one day I will win the lottery. Finally my dreams came through when I emailed Dr Lucas and told him I needed the lucky numbers to win the lottery. I spend so much money on tickets just to make sure I win. But I never knew there was always something behind every lucky winner until the day I met Dr Lucas online, which so many people have talked about that he is very great when it comes to casting lottery spells, so I decided to give him a try. I contacted this great Dr Lucas and he did a spell and gave me the winning lottery numbers. But believe me when the draws came out I was among the lucky winners. I won 30 million dollars. with this great man you can win millions of dollars through the lottery. I am very happy to meet this great man, I will be forever grateful to you Dr Lucas, if you are looking for the best way to win the lottery you can reach Dr Lucas via his Email: drlucasspelltemple@gmail.com

Margaret Loughrey
Margaret Loughrey
Oct 9, 2021

It was like dream to me how this spell caster gave me lottery winning numbers and I won 27 million pounds, he can help you too. He's reliable. You can reach him drbenjaminlottospell711@gmail.com

Tania
Tania
Oct 15, 2021

Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that any sexually active person can get. Most people with the virus don’t have symptoms. It is important to know that even without signs of the disease, it can still spread to sexual partners.I don't just know the reason why some people is finding it difficult to believe that there is a cure for herpes, I have been suffering from herpes since last three years with my boyfriend but today I am happy that am cured from it with the herbal medicine of Dr Oduku the great healer,I was browsing the internet searching for help when I came across a testimony shared by someone on how Dr Oduku cured his herpes I was so much in need of getting his treatment but after all, Dr Oduku brought a smile to my face with his herbal medicine. I am so much happy today that we have someone like this great healer out there, so my people out there kindly contact this great healer on his email address: odukuherbalremedies@gmail.com please sir keep your good work cause there are people out there who is in need of your healing medicine.once more contact him now: odukuherbalremedies@gmail.com you can call him or whatsApp his number +2349064430408.ttps://www.facebook.com/Herpes-Eraser-102292594719987/

tony cam
tony cam
Oct 16, 2021

My name is Tom cam!!! i am very grateful sharing this great testimonies with you all, The best thing that has ever happened in my life, is how i worn the Powerball lottery. I do believe that someday i will win the Powerball lottery. finally my dreams came through when i contacted Dr. OSE and tell him i needed the lottery winning special numbers cause i have come a long way spending money on ticket just to make sure i win. But i never knew that winning was so easy with the help of Dr. OSE, until the day i meant the spell caster testimony online, which a lot of people has talked about that he is very powerful and has great powers in casting lottery spell, so i decided to give it a try. I emailed Dr. OSE and he did a spell and gave me the winning lottery special numbers 62, and co-incidentally I have be playing this same number for the past 23years without any winning, But believe me when I play the special number 62 this time and the draws were out i was the mega winner because the special 62 matched all five white-ball numbers as well as the Powerball, in the April 4 drawing to win the $70 million jackpot prize...… Dr. OSE, truly you are the best, with Dr. OSE you can will millions of money through lottery. i am a living testimony and so very happy i meant him, and i will forever be grateful to him...… you can Email him for your own winning special lottery numbers now  www.facebook.com/Dr-odion-spell-temple-110513923938220

Ruth Breen
Ruth Breen
Oct 20, 2021

It still feels incredible that my life has changed and I thank Lord Zakuza everyday for his help. It is the best feeling in the world knowing that I am financially secure. Lord Zakuza prayed and prepared a lottery spell for me and he gave me some numbers to play on the Euromillions game. I played the game and I was sent an email after 3 days regarding that I was the winner of ONE MILLION POUNDS. So I rang them up and they confirmed that I was the very lucky one to have won on the EuroMillions Raffle draw. I was shocked, surprised and couldn't believe what my eyes saw and what my ears were earing and I stopped work at where I was a working as a midwife and ever since then, I have been winning in every game I played whenever I decide to. My life and that of my family has changed ever since that day and I want to say a very big thank you to Lord Zakuza. WhatsApp him for help via +1 (740) 573-9483 or email: ( lordzakuza7 @ gmail. com ) or visit his website on: lordzakuzaspells.com

ruby wilson
ruby wilson
Nov 1, 2021

My husband left me for a good 3 years now, and I love him so much, I have been looking for a way to get him back since then. I have tried many options but he did not come back, until I met a friend that directed me to Dr.Ogedegbe, a spell caster, who helped me bring back my husband after 1 weeks. My husband and I are living happily together today, That man is great, you can contact him via email dr.ogedegbe6@gmailcom Now I will advise any serious persons that found themselves in this kind of problem to contact him now with a fast solution without stress.. He always active, now i call him my spiritual father,.contact him now he is always online email dr.ogedegbe6@gmail.com or call/whatsapp number +2348109374702

casie moren
casie moren
Nov 9, 2021

Hi everyone, I want to quickly give this unbelievable review about how I won my lottery, before i won my Big Lotto, I used to work at Mercy Medical Center in Springfield, Massachusetts. i worked in patient care for 32 years and there was nothing to show for it, while i was working then i kept on playing Lottery game hoping and believing that one day i would win the lottery and have a pipe dream, but before then i had played lottery in different occasions but no win, i decided to try something new by going beyond physical, i read about Dr Lucas lotto spell how he helped people to win the lottery, i contacted him and gave it a try, he caster a lotto winning spell for me and then give me winning number to play, i wasn't sure about it all but i just gave it a trial, behold it was like a magic i won the lottery with the numbers he gave to me. Dr Lucas is really trustworthy and reliable, I am sharing this to you who have been finding it so hard to win the lottery, Dr Lucas can help you win. here is his info" Email: Drlucasspelltemple@gmail.com

David
David
Dec 7, 2021

i won the lottery and then people kept on asking me how did i do it, well yea there is a little secrete you all never knew about, i was able to win the 80.000.000 lottery with the help of Dr Dominion lottery winning spell, he gave me number to play and instructed me when to play the lottery and i did as he instructed, my dear friends getting rich is never by luck it's something we all have to work for, people have been playing same lottery for years now and have never won, we need to be on the right track to get what we want i am saying this here because i want the best for everyone, you can't win the lottery just like that you need to know exacly what to do, what to play and when to play this is a truth that no one will never tell you, if you want to win big my dear i advice you to talk to Dr Dominion let him guide you on what to do and how to do it with his lottery spell. you can try him Email: dominionlottospelltemple@gmail.com website: https://drdominiontemple.com WhatsApp: +16574277820

melvin martins
melvin martins
Dec 8, 2021

I'm Melvin Martins. from the United States. I started playing lottery games 7 years ago and I have never won big. I went online to seek help on how I can win big in my lottery games and I saw some nice reviews about Dr John who has made different people huge winners in their lottery games with his prayers. I gave it a try and I contacted Dr John who told me how and what to do before I can become a big lotto winner and I accepted. He made special prayers for me at his temple and gave me the required numbers to play the lotto game and when I played it, I won a massive $235.4 million POWERBALL jackpot. I was so happy and I chose to receive my winnings in a one-time, lump-sum payment of $160,038,447.27 at Florida Lottery Headquarters in Tallahassee and the balance was given to the store that I bought & played the game from. I would love other people to seek help from him and he can be contacted through WhatsApp/call/text via this number +1 (803) 820 2671 or you can email him on: Drjohnwinlotterspell@gmail.com .

Francisco
Francisco
Dec 9, 2021

Hi everyone, my name is Francisco! Top Secret Way To Win Lottery With The Help Of A Magic spell caster called Dr. Prince . I requested a lottery spell, and he cast the spell and sent me the winning lottery number. Now I am a proud lottery winner with the help of Dr.prince . I won $1,000,000.00 ( One Million Dollars) Thank you so much sir for dedicating your time to cast the Lottery spell for me. I am extremely grateful for the Lottery spell you did for me. You can contact him now for your own winning numbers. Email: obinnaspelltemple@yahoo.com WhatsApp him: +18488416266

patiala legitimate
patiala legitimate
Dec 10, 2021

Are you looking for Finance? Are you looking for fast cash to enlarge your business Interested people should please contact us reply to us (Whats App) number: +919394133968 patialalegitimate515@gmail.com Mr Sorina

Larry Baier
Larry Baier
Dec 14, 2021

I am Larry Baier. I can never stop thanking Dr Graceondu for transforming my life, i have been playing lottery games for a very long time and i have never one day win any game, i met a friend whom i complained to about my inability to win and he introduced me to Dr Graceondu whom helped him by praying for him and giving him a game that he played and he won $150,000 so i contacted him through his email and he assured me that i will win big. he asked me to give him two day so he can make some prayers on my behalf so that the winning numbers will be revealed to him, so i waited for two days the second day he sent me the number to play, so i play the game i never had it in my mind that i was going to win such amount of money, so on that faithful day i went to check the game on April 16, 2021 and behold i got the biggest shock of my life i won $2,000,000 and from that moment my life changed. all thanks to Dr Graceondu, i want to also advice everyone out there to also contact him if you have been playing lottery and you have never won. You can reach him via his email, drgraceondu12@gmail.com or WhatsApp him +15204677763, you can also visit his Website. https://drgraceonduadodo.com

Gordon Rees
Gordon Rees
Dec 14, 2021

Hi, I'm so happy to write this out for everyone to see. I'm Gordon Rees by name and I work as a taxi driver. I love playing the lottery but I have not won any huge sum except for a few Pounds. I decided to search online for help on how I can win very big in the lottery because I have been playing for the past 10 years and I have never won a big amount. Then, I saw a post of a spell caster named Dr Amber who specializes in lottery spells to win big in any game. I contacted him and he told me everything about how to get the spell done for me and I agreed to everything. Dr Amber prepared a lottery spell for me and within 3 days, he gave me the numbers to play the lottery of which I did and after 2 days, I was told that I have won the sum of 1 million Pounds on the lottery game I played. I couldn't believe my ears at that moment because I was surprised and shocked about it. I had to make sure I verified everything before believing that I was the winner and really I was the winner of 1 million Pounds and ever since then, my life has changed and I am so happy living my dream life. If in any way you need help to win in your lottery game, get in touch with Dr Amber via WhatsApp or Call on: +1 (406) 646-2222 or email: amberlottotemple@yahoo.com

Will Brown
Will Brown
Dec 17, 2021

I was suffering from herpes since January before I met Dr Ajayi who got me cured. Thank god, I'm cured. I had for some time now noticed having difficulty in pain. Never in my wildest dreams did it cross my mind that I may develop a serious herpes disease. Few months ago I purchased herbal remedy from Dr Ajayi, after taking it for 14 days, I was totally reversed. I'm so happy to share this great news to everyone and I want to advise anyone suffering from herpes diseases or any type of diseases he will get you cured. you may need his email for assistance. Email him at ajayiherbalhome@gmail.com you can also call or WhatsApp him +2348154724883. visit his website https://ajayiherbalhome.weebly.com for more information and don't forget to share as you read.

Karen09
Karen09
Jan 1, 2022

Hi everyone, my name is Karen! Top Secret Way To Win Lottery With The Help Of A Magic spell caster called Dr. Okosisi. I requested a lottery spell, and he cast the spell and sent me the winning lottery number. Now I am a proud lottery winner with the help of Dr. Okosisi. I won $1,000,000.00 ( One Million Dollars) Thank you so much sir for dedicating your time to cast the Lottery spell for me. I am extremely grateful for the Lottery spell you did for me. You can contact him now for your own winning numbers. Website: https://spellservicetemple.com/faq/ Email: spellservicetemple@gmail.com WhatsApp him: +1 (901) 235-9551 Karen

Mary Evans
Mary Evans
Jan 6, 2022

I want to say a big thanks to Dr. Okosisi for helping me to win the lottery. I won ($1,000,000.00) My heart was filled with Joy and happiness when I won the lottery. All thanks goes to Dr Okosisi for his good work he did for me that made me win the lottery. It has been hard for me to earn a living over the years of hard labor and suffering. I always pray to God to help me find a way to hit the lottery, because that was all I put my hope on. I always play the lottery daily, buy different lottery tickets, pay for online tips and others, but all was in vain, no good result, until one day I found this great man Dr Okosisi. On the internet, he is a magic voodoo Doctor, who helps to cast the lottery spell, as was described in the article. I contacted him too because I want to hit the lottery. Dr. Okosis helped me to cast the spell, and behold I won ONE MILLION DOLLARS. Truly you are the best and your spell is genuine and costs no harm. I got my bills paid and my debt cleared. I am making this known to every one of you who have been trying all day to win the lottery, believe me this is the only way to win the lottery with a better price, this is the real contact we all have been searching for. Contact him now. WhatsApp number: +1 (901) 235-9551 Email: spellservicetemple@gmail.com Website: https://spellservicetemple.com/faq/

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