What is Hedging:  As per the business directory, Hedging is a risk management strategy used in limiting or offsetting probability of loss from fluctuations in the prices of commodities, currencies, or securities. In effect, hedging is a transfer of risk without buying insurance policies. Hedging is done by the various risk derivatives. To understand this, it is important to first understand the basics of risk derivatives.

Tanker_offshore_terminal

Broadly speaking there are two types of risk derivatives. Exchange traded and over the counter derivatives. As the name suggests, exchange traded derivatives are traded in the international exchanges (for example New York Mercantile exchange, NYMEX), where standard contracts, terms of which have been defined by the exchange are traded.

Over the counter (OTC) derivatives are traded through dealers and the contracts are tailor made. OTC derivatives come with the risk of other party not fulfilling his obligations.

In the trade exchange, future contracts and Options contract derivative are normally traded and Oil/gas companies choose these two hedging contracts.

risk derivatives

To understand these hedging techniques, assume that I am oil/gas Production Company and I am producing 100000 barrels in a month. Today’s  crude oil price is $80/barrel. I am afraid that by next month , when I will have inventory of around 100000 barrels, the crude oil price may fall to below $75/Barrel, and I might make a loss of $500000 compared with today’s crude oil price.  Lets see how I can use hedging to reduce this loss.

1. Future and Forward contracts:
(The fundamental difference between future and forward contracts is that one is traded in exchanges while other is traded OTC, here I will discuss Future contracts).

“Future contracts between two parties A & B is a contract where party B has the obligation to deliver a commodity on agreed date and party A has the obligation to pay on same date the price, which is agreed today”.

So in my case I am party B and in a future contract with A today, I agree to deliver 100000 barrels of crude oil on 11th Dec 2014 and party A agrees to pay the listed price for Dec 2014 in the trade exchange (say NYMEX). Let us assume the listed price for Dec 2014 is $81/Barrel. It is important to note that I do not have to actually (physically) deliver the crude oil to party A.
Now in Dec 2014 when I have produced 100000 barrels of crude oil. Lets consider two scenarios

Scenario 1: Crude price drops to $75/barrels as expected by me.

In the Physical market

I sell 100000 barrels of crude oil @ $75/barrel to get $7500000 where as I had expected $8000000 so I incur loss of $500000 in the physical market.

In the Future contract

My obligation is to deliver 100000 barrels of crude oil which in dec 2014 will cost me $7500000 @ $75/barrel. But party A has the obligation to pay me @$81/barrel so total of $8100000. This way in the future contract I make profit of $600000.
Net profit I make is $600000 (Future contract) – $500000 (Physical market) = $100000

So I have hedged the crude oil price with future contract.

Scenario 2: Crude price increase to $82/barrels.

In the Physical market

I sell 100000 barrels of crude oil @ $82/barrel to get $8200000 where as I had expected $8000000 so I have profit of $200000 in the physical market.

In the Future contract

My obligation is to deliver 100000 barrels of crude oil which in Dec 2014 will cost me $8200000 @ $82/barrel. But party A has the obligation to pay me @$81/barrel so total of $8100000. This way in the future contract I make loss of $100000.
Net profit I make is $200000 (Physical market) – $100000 (Future contract) = $100000

So in both case of crude oil price reducing or increasing, I have made more money than I had expected in Nov 2014. With different number, it might also show some loss, even with future contract but the loss will be much lesser than what would have been incurred without hedging.

2. Hedging by OPTIONS Contract

There are two types of options contracts. Call & Put.

The relevant contract for me as Oil/gas production company will be PUT options.

“When I buy PUT options contract from another party (say party A), I have the option to sell my commodity (crude oil in this case) to party A at a particular price but I am not obliged to do so. It is upto me, if I want to exercise my option to sell my commodity to party A. My this right has an expiry date and I can use my option on any date before the expiry”.

Off course I will only exercise my option if the price of the crude oil has decreased and not if the price of crude oil has increased. However to buy this right (option contract) I have to pay a premium to party A.

risk

Let us assume that I buy “Put option contract” from party A at lock in price of $80/Barrel for crude oil. Table above shows, how after using “Hedging by Options contract”, I do not incur any loss even when the price of crude oil has fallen from $80 to $70.

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May 24, 2021

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LendingTree
May 25, 2021

GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR LEASE AT THE LOWEST RATES AVAILABLE. OTHER FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS SUCH AS MTN, CD, DLC, PB ARE ALSO AVAILABLE. I am direct to a provider who has recently issued banking instruments for a couple of my clients the provider is 100% check-able you can do your due diligence on them. I personally know the provider. Our instruments are only from triple 'a' rated banks and we issue from $1M to $5B . The provider is 100% verifiable. If you are genuinely seeking bank instruments. Contact me and i will furnish you with details. They deal with issuing of instruments such as Bank Guarantee and Standby letters of credit also Letters of credit. I only want serious buyers then i will put you in touch with the provider directly. - Bank Guarantee (BG) - Standby Letter of Credit (SBLC) - Direct Line of Credit (DLC) - Medium Term Note (MTN) - Letter of Credit (LC) I will be glad to share with you our working procedures. Contact : Robert Bouffad Email: Lendingtreemoney@gmail.com Whatsapp: +447586540601 Postal address Swiss National Bank Börsenstrasse 15 P. O. Box CH-8022 Zurich BROKERS ARE WELCOME & 100% PROTECTED!!!

Mike Morgan
Mike Morgan
May 26, 2021

Dear Sir/Madam, Do you need a quick long or short term Loan with a relatively low interest rate as low as 3%? We offer business Loan, personal Loan, home Loan, auto Loan,student Loan, debt consolidation Loan e.t.c. no matter your credit score. Personal Loans (Secure and Unsecured) Business Loans (Secure and Unsecured) Consolidation Loan and many more. Contact US for more information about Loan offer and we will solve your financial problem. contact us via email: muthooth.finance@gmail.com Phone number: +917428831341 (Call/Whats app)

Mike Morgan
Mike Morgan
May 26, 2021

Dear Sir/Madam, Do you need a quick long or short term Loan with a relatively low interest rate as low as 3%? We offer business Loan, personal Loan, home Loan, auto Loan,student Loan, debt consolidation Loan e.t.c. no matter your credit score. Personal Loans (Secure and Unsecured) Business Loans (Secure and Unsecured) Consolidation Loan and many more. Contact US for more information about Loan offer and we will solve your financial problem. contact us via email: muthooth.finance@gmail.com Phone number: +917428831341 (Call/Whats app)

Omelchenko Omelchenko
Omelchenko Omelchenko
Jun 11, 2021

Are you Looking for Tank storage and marine logistics purposes?. We have Storage availability for Crude oil, Aviation kerosene, Diesel oil, edible vegetable oil, non-hazardous chemicals, Oleochemicals, liquid agricultural products, biodiesel,all Petroleum products. Also are services for Blending, Heating, bunking services, leasing of oil storage tanks, Transshipment of oil products, Transportation & Logistics, Crude oil Storage, Pipeline Injection, Railway, land transport and Sea transport. We service USA, Europe, Pacific, Asia regions and more. We offer discounts in storage and logistics services. For inquiries, Contact us VIA email contact below for TSA / storage and logistics purposes. E-mail: thiel_losgitik@outlook.com Houson: +1 346 273 1937 Rotterdam: +31 635250814 Best Regards. THIEL LOGISTIK

ivan
ivan
Jun 18, 2021

We are able to supply agro products, fertilizers and petroleum products, such as D2, jp54 , Urea46, Bitumen,Fertilizers,Mazut M100/75/99 , Base oil ,CST -180 Fuel oil, Lng, Lpg, Diesel Fuel EN-590, Jet-A1 ETC.. We are willing,able and capable to serve and deliver any of your requested product without any delay, we await your response soon to enable us proceed.contact us: Tel: +79267781238 whats app +79267781238 ivanartur26@gmail.com Note our staffs are highly trained and dedicated to meet with your buyer's demanded in good manners and possible business trend with possib let effects in standard market prices. We are looking forward to doing good business with you, THANKS, Ivan Artur Zhestokov

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