# A Complete Guide to Understand Damage Stability Better

Written by Capt Rajeev Jassal on July 4, 2017

Not only this topic is difficult to understand, it is boring too. I know and I understand.

But boring topic cannot be the explanation of not knowing what we ought to know in the real world, on the high seas.

In 2010, Paris MOU and Black Sea MOU carried out a concentrated inspection campaign on tanker damage stability.

At the end of this campaign, Pat Dolby, co-ordinator of this CIC commented,

The most significant finding from the campaign was that 16.2% of tankers that were inspected, the master could not demonstrate that the ship was complying with damage stability.

16.2%. That is a huge number that definitely shows that there is a void in understanding this topic.

So today, let us discuss and demystify this topic of damage stability.

## Why damage stability?

Do you remember that scene from the movie “Titanic”, where after the ship hit the iceberg, the naval architect lays down the ship’s plans in front of the captain?

While he was trying to brief the captain about the situation, the captain just had this one question.

How much time do we have?

And he said, an hour, two at the most.

How did he arrive at this number and how was he sure that an unsinkable ship is going to sink?

I will answer that question later but that is what damage stability is all about. All we are interested in is knowing that after an incident if the ship will remain afloat or sink?

All the rules about damage stability are trying to keep the ships safe even after one or more compartments are breached.

Consider this.

You have two ships both identical in every respect but the first one has only one tank (or cargo hold) and the second one has two tanks (or cargo holds).

Which one do you think is safer?  Easy answer, right?

The one with the two cargo tanks.

This is because if one compartment is flooded, the first ship will have 100% of the cargo space flooded. The second ship would still have 50% of the cargo space intact.

What I am trying to prove here is that more the subdivisions of the ship, safer it would be.

But the ship owners cannot divide the cargo spaces in 20 or 50 compartments. This would mean the use of more steel, more money to build the ship and lesser cargo space to use.

Shipowner cannot build a ship with just one compartment either. That is too unsafe.

So how many minimum subdivisions a ship must have?

All in all, there are three approaches to building a ship that can withstand damage to its compartments.

All the three approaches for damage stability are just aiming to find that answer. So let us discuss each of these approaches of damage stability.

## 1. Floodable length and factor of subdivision

This is an old approach but it is still important to discuss this because this approach lays the foundation to understand damage stability.

In this approach, the number of subdivisions required is calculated by knowing the floodable length along the ship.

Floodable length is the length of the compartment which if flooded will cause the ship to sink up to the margin line.

Let us understand this by building a ship.

We have a ship and we need to put subdivisions (bulkheads) to it to divide the ship into compartments.

We create one compartment in the midship by placing two bulkheads (let us mark this bulkhead as A & B).

The length of this compartment (Length AB) need to such that if this compartment is flooded, the ship will sink to a point where margin line is just submerged.

This is the floodable length at this point.

Now we want to place another bulkhead aft of midship. Again this bulkhead needs to be at a location (C) such that if compartment AC is flooded, the ship will sink to a point where margin line is just submerged.

And with this same approach, we can decide the location of other bulkheads along the ship’s length.

When calculating the floodable length, One thing that we need to keep in mind is that we need to flood the compartment to the full width of the ship even when we have or plan to have a centerline bulkhead.

### Floodable length Curve

Our ship is ready now with all the compartments it needs. This ship would not sink if any one compartment is breached and flooded.

But if you would have noticed I have drawn larger compartment in the midship area. This means that I have shown large floodable length closer to the midship area.

This is because if the midship compartment is flooded, the ship will sink bodily (with least trim).

But as we move away from the midship, the flooded compartment will trim the vessel. This would make a smaller compartment to sink the ship up to the margin line.

So the bottom line is that the floodable length changes along the length of the ship.

Floodable length curve represents the maximum floodable length of the ship along the ship’s length. This curve is obtained by vertically plotting the floodable length along the ship’s length.

### Checking the damage stability compliance: Floodable curve method

So far I have given the basic idea of what floodable length is and how floodable length curve is obtained.

Ships, that are required to comply with this method of damage stability would be provided with the floodable length curve.

The damage stability rules for the ships would be something like…

The ship should be able to survive the breach (flooding) of any one (two or three) compartment.

To check if the ship would comply with this damage stability requirement, the floodable length curve is superimposed on the ship’s plan.

Then one compartment by one, the damage stability compliance is checked. The length of the assumed damaged compartment is plotted vertically at the center of the compartment.

If this length is below the floodable length curve, this compartment complies with the damage stability requirements of one compartment standard.

Same is done with other compartments.

As we can see, all the length triangles are within the floodable length curve of the ship. This means that this ship complies with one compartment standards of the damage stability.

Now let us check the damage stability compliance for two compartment standard. In this case, we will assume the flooding of two compartments and compare the length triangle with the floodable length curve of the ship.

Again same is done assuming flooding of any two adjacent compartments.

Clearly, this ship does not comply with damage stability requirements of two compartment standards.

If we need to comply with two compartment standards, this ship needs to have more compartments, the length of which need to be such that even when two compartments are flooded it will be below the floodable length curve.

Maybe the below subdivision of the ship will be able to satisfy the damage stability requirement for two compartment standard.

Let us check the damage stability compliance to two compartment standard.

As you can see, this ship is a two compartment standard ship now.

We can go on in a similar way if we want to build a three compartment or four compartment ship.

Remember, Titanic was a four compartment ship and so was called the unsinkable ship.

Finally, if you are still unsure of this concept, watch this video.

## 2. Damage stability: Probabilistic damage assessment

Damage stability calculations by probabilistic damage assessment is required by SOLAS Chapter II-1, part B. This is required for cargo ships 80 m in length and upwards and to all passenger ships regardless of length.

This approach uses the concept of probability to ensure that ships can survive damage to its compartment(s).

There are two probability factors that are used in this approach.

• Probability that a particular compartment(s) will damage in an incident (factor “p”)
• the probability that ship will survive if that compartment(s) is flooded (Factor “s”)

Used as the requirement for the cargo ships and passenger ships.

Multiplying these two factors (p x s) will give the probability of surviving that damage case.

Let us again take our 8 compartment ship and calculate the probability of surviving damage to one compartment.

Now we need to calculate the probability of surviving two compartment damage.

While it may seem repetitive but let us also calculate the probability of surviving three compartment damage.

The value of S in all these will either be 0 or 1. This is because when we have considered a damage, the ship will either survive (probability 1) or not survive (probability 0).

So if this ship is three compartment ship, there is no need to consider the probability of survival for four and more compartments because it will be zero.

But there is still one thing to consider. At what drafts we need to consider all these damages?

SOLAS requires that these should be considered at three drafts.

• Deepest subdivision draught (ds): Which corresponds to the Summer Load Line draught of the ship.
• Light service draught (dl): Service draught corresponding to the lightest anticipated loading and associated tankage, including, however, such ballast as may be necessary for stability and/or immersion.
• Partial subdivision draught (dp):  light service draught plus 60% of the difference between the light service draught and the deepest subdivision draught.

So, for example, all these three tables I made above need to be made for these three initial (before damage) drafts of the ship.

So for deepest subdivision draft we will have

For Light service draught (dl),

And finally, for partial subdivision draft, we will have

## 3. Damage stability compliance: Probabilistic method

Finally the bottom line. How would a ship comply with the damage stability requirements?

As per SOLAS Chapter II-1, part B-1, Regulation 6, the ship complies with damage stability when

Attained Subdivision Index > Required subdivision index

### Attained Subdivision Index

As per SOLAS, attained subdivision index is calculated by the formula

### Required Subdivision Index

SOLAS chapter II-1, Reg 7 gives the formula to calculate the required subdivision index for a ship.

These formulas are different for different type and size of the ship.

This would be the minimum required value of subdivision index.

If the actual value of subdivision index (Attained value) is less than the required, the subdivisions need to be re-arranged or increased to have attained subdivision index to be more than required subdivision index.

## Damage stability by Deterministic damage assessment

Damage stability calculations by this method is required for all types of tankers.

Unlike probabilistic method that uses the concept of probability, the deterministic method defines the variables in quantifiable terms.

In this method,

• the damaged area is defined (damage assumption); and
• The minimum required value of the stability factors is defined (Survival requirements)

In all the cases of damage assumptions, the vessel should have the stability factors value more than the survival requirements.

Let us take the example of IBC code that sets the rules for the chemical tankers.

### Damage assumptions as per IBC code are

1. Extent of damage

This defines the extent the hull of the chemical tanker needs to be assumed damaged.

2. Flooding assumption

This defines the flooding assumptions that need to be considered after the assumed damage to the hull of the chemical tanker.

3. Standard of damage

The dimensions of assumed damage are considered in the “extent of damage” section. Standard of damage defines the assumed location of the damage along the ship’s length.

### Survival Requirements as per IBC code

We have considered all the damage assumptions required as per IBC code.

In all the possible cases as per the damage assumptions, the ship should survive.

But in the deterministic approach, survival does not just mean that ship should not sink. The deterministic approach gives the minimum stability criteria values that the ship must have with assumed damage as defined.

As per IBC code, these survival requirements are for two phases of flooding.

• In any stage of flooding
• At final equilibrium after flooding

In any stage of flooding

At final equilibrium after flooding

### Damage stability compliance: Deterministic Approach

With probabilistic approach and floodable length curve, the damage stability compliance is dealt with at the stage of construction of the ship.

But ensuring compliance with the deterministic approach is different.

In the real world, there can be endless combinations of loading conditions of a ship. In each of these loading conditions, we need to apply the damage assumptions.

We then need to check if the survival requirements as defined by the IMO in various conventions are satisfied.

Off course, all these cases cannot be documented and checked during construction stages.

But during normal ship operations and before loading, the chief officer need to check and confirm that damage stability criterions are met.

How to check if the proposed stowage plan satisfies the damage stability requirements?

Well, there are few methods to check this but I will have look ahead approach here. As per the new requirements, the loadicators fitted on tankers need to have damage stability calculation capabilities.

So before a stowage plan is finalized, we need to check from the loadicator if this stowage satisfies the damage stability requirements.

If not, the chief officer needs to make required amendments to the stowage until the damage stability requirements are met.

## Conclusion

If we are not checking the damage stability of the ship, not only we are risking the environment but we are risking our lives too.

It is so important that ships are able to survive any damage sustained during the adventures it carries on the high seas.

The first step toward complying with the damage stability is to understand what it is and what is required of us.

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Capt. Rajeev Jassal has sailed for over 24 years mainly on crude oil, product and chemical tankers. He holds MBA in shipping & Logistics degree from London. He has done extensive research on quantitatively measuring Safety culture onboard and safety climate ashore which he believes is the most important element for safer shipping.

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INDRANIL RAY
Jul 9, 2017

Wonderfully explained sir, I wish many more various topics from you as you always do the explanations in very different ways,example based, thanking you

Rajeev Jassal
Jul 19, 2017

Clara
Apr 26, 2023

Avinash Nayak
Jul 19, 2017

Great explanation Sir...It cleared the concept regarding damage stability and how to calculate. Kindly advise, how we will know whether the ship is constructed as per probablistic method or deterministic method?

Rajeev Jassal
Jul 19, 2017

Ships are built as per the requirements of SOLAS chapter II. The damage stability requirements in SOLAS chapter II are based on probabilistic approach. However, the oil tankers, chemical tanker, and gas tankers are required to be built as per the requirements of MARPOL Annex I, IBC Code and IGC code respectively. These damage stability requirements are based upon the deterministic approach.

Anant
Jul 22, 2017

Appreciate your effort sir, kindly advise if cross flooding arrangements is only for passenger vessel or for cargo vessel also, and when is it required, which tanks should have this arrangements, TIA.

Rajeev Jassal
Jul 29, 2017

Cross flooding arrangements are applicable for passenger ships though it is not compulsory. Passenger ships just need to comply with the damage stability requirements as I have discussed in this post. Having cross flooding arrangements increases the chances that passenger ship would comply with the damage stability requirements. For the areas for cross flooding, it is the decision of the ship owner and naval architect designing the ship. For example, considering no cross flooding arrangements the passenger ship might be failing one damage case (Say damage to No 4 compartment) for damage stability requirements. By having cross flooding arrangements for No 4 compartment may cause the ship to comply with the damage stability requirements for this damage case. Or shipowner may choose to have the cross flooding arrangements for the entire length of the ship. If the ship complies with the damage stability requirements without cross flooding arrangements, they may choose to not fit the cross flooding arrangements. The only requirement is to comply with damage stability, with or without cross flooding arrangements does not matter.

Anant Batra
Jul 29, 2017

Thanks for clarifying that sir.

Harsh vardhan Anand
Jul 29, 2017

I am going for my mates written exam next week. It is a very nice explanation. Found it very helpful. Is there any other platform where i could contact you to clear my doubts in future ?

Rajeev Jassal
Jul 29, 2017

Glad you found it useful Harsh... If you have any question you can post it on our SEAQA section, this way fellow seafarers can also benefit from your questions and the answers to those questions. Alternatively, you can send me an email at support@myseatime.com. On average I get 10-15 emails a day and sometimes there isn't enough time in a day to respond to all of them but I try my best.

Anurag
Aug 5, 2017

If loadicator is not working how I will ascertain that on departure the tanker vessel is complying with damage stability requirements

Rajeev Jassal
Aug 5, 2017

We need to check the KG curve in the damage stability booklet. The curve plotted with KG on one axis and draft on the other axis. We need to take our draft and see the maximum KG allowed from the curve. Ship's actual KG should be less than this value. On many ships (specially the old ships) this KG curve may not be there. Owners need to contact Yard and ship's class for these curves.

Anurag Choudhary
Aug 5, 2017

Thanks a lot sir!!

Daniela
Aug 5, 2017

Thanks so much with your explanation ...I study naval architecture ...I have a question about how to calculate the floodable lentgh in theory form ...I know a method of iteration but I don't undertand how to start ..I need to asum the draf, the trim ...if you know a reference that explain that I would apreciate it!!!

Aug 23, 2017

Many thanks for your efforts ,all topics covered are very informative & easy to understand to prepare for CoC exams

Capt.S.S.Gupte
Oct 15, 2017

Hello Sir, one clarification? I am on a PCC.We never get a ballast voyage.Now we have about 2 days of ballast voyage.And we need to finish the tank inspections.Now on the loadicator there are three criterias for GM, i.e.IMO ,company requirement and DMG.When I have pumped out 4 tanks together ,which I have to ,because they are interconnected.Then do the inspection.I am getting GM 2.25 m ..thats fine, IMO GM is also OK i.e 2.20 m ,but DMG min required its showing 2.28 m ..and an alarm.What am i missing here?? am i okay to pump out and do the inspection?

Siddharth Gaur
Dec 29, 2017

How can the trim affect gz curve.Can deck edge immersion be counted for that too.

Jul 28, 2021

Generally in eralier days, we used to assume (for simplicity) that the Trim is constant while inclining to port/stbd,. Actually trim varies w.r.t. heel. to account for this we have trimmed hydrostatics and KN curves (stability cross curves) for all the operational trims. GZ can go up if the waterplane area of the ship is more in the trimmed conditions.

Sudhanshu
Feb 2, 2018

Very Well explained sir... Nw I hv a clear vision abt this topic..

AJAY KUMAR
Mar 3, 2018

Mind blowing sir, i wish if u keep on posting blogs like above.

Philipp Doublep
May 23, 2018

Thank you for explanation! Could you clarify, what actions should be undertaken to improve damage situation?! How does it relate with damage stabilty booklet?!

Rishikesh singg
Jun 11, 2018

Sir kindly tell me ...what is worst case of damage stability and where i can find li in damage stability booklet. ?

jayasankar
Jun 20, 2018

Thank you for your explanations. Kindly advice how can be find out the worst case in the damage stability cases as listed in the booklet.

marlon
Aug 29, 2019

where you able to find the answer? i hope this question will be answered as not all damage stability booklet is stating this.

Rajeev Jassal
Aug 29, 2019

I have just posted an article that answers this.. check it out...

Pushkar Julka
Jun 28, 2018

Very beautifully explained and in very easy words. Thanx for your efforts sir.

Anurag Tiwari
Oct 8, 2018

Thanks a lot SIR......!!!!

Rahul Raghuram
Oct 31, 2018

Sir. How is the subdivision loadline related to floodable length on passenger ships?

Gaurav
Nov 4, 2018

There is one question asked in orals - which is the worst damage stability condition?

MD Ashif Imran
Apr 12, 2019

Great sir. Wish fr ur best reward

ROHIT
Jun 15, 2019

Explained very nicely and in detail. Thank u very much Sir for sharing such needful knowledge.

Kumar
Jun 30, 2019

Thank you for your Great concepts! Excellent tips for mariners.

Nitin
Jul 7, 2019

Dear Sir, pls note all vessels have cross flooding arrangements not only passenger ships. WBT's considered as cross flooding arrangements as ballast could be transferred internally in case of flooding.

Anil
Jul 25, 2019

Sir in tankers how to determine the worst case damage stability as being always asked by vetting inspectors

Andrew
Sep 2, 2019

What i have to understand is : in the Curve of Floodable Lenght and Probabilistic Assessment the damage stability criterias are dealt on the stage of construction so it depend only how we construct the ship. Why in the deterministic method the Officer shall check this requiriments if they depends from the construction of the ships same like the first 2 methods? thank you

Govind Prabhakumar
Nov 27, 2019

Sir, very nicely explained. Thanks a lot for your initiative

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Jan 13, 2020

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AMAR ANAND
Apr 23, 2020

once again....a great article sir

jatin
Jun 21, 2020

what is factor of subdivision? how its calculated?

Captain Subrata Kumar Bose
Jul 30, 2020

Excellent

giovanni
Oct 7, 2020

deepak kumar sahu
Oct 10, 2020

thanks for the explaination.It is very helpfull in understanding damage stability. In case of probalistic approach ,how the probability will be calculated.Who will calculate the probabality.Is any other requirement in bulk carrier regarding no. of bulkheads assumption or final damage stability criteria at equilibrium.

Ali poori
Dec 22, 2020

Dear sir Tnx for your valuable articles. Can you please furnish us with "how to use of tables of a specific ship, what to check, why some cases are some not" where loading condition are used against damage cases at initial and equilibrium condition

Rajesh R
Feb 12, 2021

Very nicely explained sir...my query is that whether the above method is applicable for warships...

MOHANDAS PALAKKULANGARA
Aug 3, 2021

Wonderful explanation Sir. My concept is clear. Thanks

PURU
Aug 17, 2021

What will be the damaged stability criteria for bulk carriers....Will it be as per Regulation 27 of the load line convention??

mihir
Oct 20, 2021

Sir the flooding graph is drawn on a graph using the lenght of floodable compartment then how do we determine whether the ship will withstand the flooding of the compatment by super imposing the graph on the vessels length using the same compartment length ? each time the length of the compartment should touch the graph since same length is used to draw the graph

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Apr 18, 2022

the magic of internet, once you post something it remains several years after and help fellows who are going through the same difficulties later one. thank you sir, explanations clearly made and well illustrate. Thank you.

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I had issues with my husband and he moved to another city and he cut off communication with me. I find every means possible to reach out to him so that we can resolve our differences but to no avail. His mom and siblings didn’t even know his where about. I was depressed and messed up emotionally and I had to seek help to get him back to me before another lady takes over my place in his life. So I had to contact DR ISIKOLO who I explained everything to and was willing to help me and he did. He did a love reconciliation bond for me and my man and unknown to me that the result will manifest after 48 hours as he promised. My man returned back and came for me and I was amazed that I can say now that the love and happiness has been restored and we are more happier together and all I see now is forever with him and I am so thankful to DR ISIKOLO for his kindness to me and other people out there. His email contact: isikolosolutionhome@gmail.com or His website: (https://isikolotemple.com) You can also WhatsApp/Viber him on: +2348133261196

Jotasha Jones
Apr 16, 2023

MY HUSBAND LEFT AND DR ISIKOLO GOT HIM BACK TO ME AND I AM AMAZED AND HAD TO SPREAD THE GOOD NEWS My name is Jotasha Jones from Florida. When my man left me, I was traumatized and heartbroken and couldn't get myself for months. I did all I could to get him back but to no avail. I left for another city hoping I could start all over again. I came in contact with another man who I tried my best to be with but it didn't work out because I could not love him. I knew I still loved and wanted my man back to me. So I began to search for help and that was when I found DR ISIKOLO from different views i read about him. We got talking and I made him understand everything that I needed to know and I believed in him and complied with the procedures. He worked for me and restored the love and connection between me and my man and just after 48 hours as he promised, My man searched for me and we got talking and he came down to see me where i am and we made things up and became happy together again. DR ISIKOLO is trustworthy and he can help you too if you contact him for anything. Just text him via WhatsApp +2348133261196 or read and contact him via website (https://isikolotemple.com)

Charlene Harris
Apr 20, 2023

WHEN LOOKING FOR A TRUSTWORTHY SPELL CASTER TO HELP YOU GET YOUR EX BACK, CONTACT DR ISIKOLO. HIS website (https://isikolotemple.com) Good day everyone. It was really heavy on me when my boyfriend left me for another lady. I was emotionally wrecked and knew not what to do to get him back. I was in distress for months and kept on searching for help from everywhere till i got to know about DR ISIKOLO. I contacted him and explained my problems to him. He was willing to help me and urge me to comply with the procedures so that he can restore the love between me and my man and also ensure we were both back to each other again. I met all the requirements and he did his job. After 48 hours, i got a text from my boyfriend asking for a date so that we can trash things out. Now we are back together and all thanks to DR ISIKOLO. He can help you too if you are willing to believe and stay hopeful. Just email him via: isikolosolutionhome@gmail.com You can also WhatsApp him on +2348133261196

Nicole Kidman
Apr 24, 2023

Hi everyone my name is Nicole Kidman from Las Vegas and I am here to also give gratitude to Dr Isikolo whom God used to savage my situation and restore the joy and happiness in my home. I lost my husband to a lady abroad when he went to work in the same region where she lives. I never knew all that happened till a friend of mine sent me photos of both together and it was known to me after then that it was the reason why my husband grew cold towards me and left me behind. My husband was hypnotized and mind controlled and I knew everything when I contacted Dr Isikolo when I searched for help and found none. He assured me of his return and having our love and happiness restored back which he did and the result started manifesting after 48 hours. Now I have my man back and I can't thank Dr Isikolo enough for his honesty and support. Just text him via WhatsApp +2348133261196 or email him via: isikolosolutionhome@gmail.com or read more about him via his website (https://isikolotemple.com)

Prem Prakash
Apr 29, 2023

Thanks for the great article. Can you please advise if damage stability criteria should be met at all times including while entering and leaving port or only at sea during ocean passage. Basically can vessel sail out and take ballast in DB tanks to increase GM to meet the damage stability criteria?

Marvelyn Evans
Apr 30, 2023

Hello everyone, my name is Marvelyn Evans. For quite some time, My husband was living in another apartment due to work pressure and we were very much happy together even though he stayed apart from us for some months. Little did i know a colleague from work was already having an affair with him which made my husband file a divorce against me out of nowhere. I knew something was wrong because we never had to fight or argue that much to make him leave. I was traumatized and i search for help to tackle the situation which led me to DR ISIKOLO from praises people showered on him online. We discussed at length and he told everything I needed to know about what happened and the due process to fix the problems. He fulfilled his promises and got my husband back to me and the divorce process was canceled. Now my husband is back home to us and we are happy together. Its indeed amazing how people can genuinely help other people when they are in need. He can help you too. Just text him via WhatsApp +2348133261196 or email him via: isikolosolutionhome@gmail.com

Maria John
May 8, 2023

they provide recovery services in binary options, forex international financial fraud and more. they also engage in account management and other trading activities like bitcoin investment and exchange. they recently recovered the sum of \$75,000 for me and i am very greatful to Mr Jeanson James Ancheta wizard who linked me up. using the most advance investigative techniques, this group has also recovered millions of dollars for victims of fraud around the globe. you can contact me on email:jeansonjamesanchetawizard62@gmail.com or Telegrem Number:+31684518136 so i can introduce you to them if you are also a victim

Edna Brewster
May 12, 2023

Review more and contact Dr Isikolo for love problems (https://isikolotemple.com) My name is Edna Brewster and I am here to appreciate Dr Isikolo. I have always had a complicated relationship with my boyfriend. We fought so many times due to insecurities on both side and we separated. I knew very well that I still love him and needed him back in my life. He neglected my plea and efforts to make things right and I got information that he was already seeing another lady. I couldn’t help the situation so I had to contact DR ISIKOLO and we talked and I explained everything to me. He assured me that he will help me and ensure I get him back to me. He didn’t waste anytime in helping me and he restored the love and joy we shared and I got my man back to me. I know better that everything so many people are saying about DR ISIKOLO is actually true when I got the result of his work for me 48 hours as he promised. Trust me he can help you too if you believe. So just contact him now. His email contact: isikolosolutionhome@gmail.com or message him via WhatsApp +234-8133261196

Franceis Garnier
May 13, 2023

Hello everyone, I'm Franceis Garnier from Brampton, Canada. I felt sick to my stomach when I lost all my investment to a company I thought was genuine. I had put all my investments into cryptocurrency and was hoping to make huge profits from my investments but the investment platform was fake and their site was a phishing site that logged me out of my account. I thought it was all gone forever not until I saw an article online about a cryptocurrency recovery company called SpyWall Cyber, while I was in doubt of their service, I went online to do my research since I didn’t want to fall victim to scan again, and I discovered that SpyWall has recovered cryptocurrency lost for many other victims of the scam, I contacted the team and in a short time, SpyWall was able to recover everything that I had lost. They are truly amazing and provide top-notch professional services, I’m very impressed and grateful for their swift action to help me get back my money. I highly recommend them to everyone out there. You can reach their recovery team directly via E-mail SpyWall(@)Techie.com

Susan Harrington
May 13, 2023

Hello everyone out here!! My Fiancée Lesbian who left me is back, I want to share my testimony it's my happiness with you all in this site, last year my Lesbian Wife left me for another woman, she abandon me alone and I miss her, since everything was so hard for me because i really love her so much, i didn’t lose hope i try my best to get her back when i was searching online and read testimonies of Dr Kachi how he has been helping ladies in getting there Ex lover back, I had no option than to seek for help, i contacted Dr Kachi explain my problem to him, Dr Kachi Guarantee me not to worry that's going to help me cast a return love spell for me, that will bring my Lesbian Wife back and assure me within 2days, it was just like a magic my wife who left me surely return back, i couldn't believe when she live the other lady and she come back to me with so much love and caring will are together now, I will never forget this help that Dr Kachi did for me, a love spell that brought my wife back. If you are here and you need help to get your Ex Lesbian back do contact Dr Kachi through this email: drkachispellcast@gmail.com I'm proud to be on his testimony page. His Number Text and Call +1 (209) 893-8075 Visit his Website: https://drkachispellcaster.wixsite.com/my-site

Jason Campbell
May 13, 2023

I lost our marriage and beautiful home wrecked by unhappiness seeing my wife walk away over the lies she was fed with and insecurities which were never true. I vowed from the beginning never to be a cheat and stood my ground to ensure I built a happy home but unfortunately she never trusted me enough. I wandered for months trying to get her back and sought help from various sources including her family intervention but never yielded success. I came in contact with Dr Isikolo who I doubted at the earlier stage we got in contact with. I had to keep hope alive and complied with the procedures just the way he explained everything to me. He assured me of her return which happened after two to three days and i am yet to find words to express how happy and appreciative i am knowing my son and I had his mom back home to us. I am telling everyone about Dr Isikolo and his kind heart helping people. He won't fail you if you try him out. Contact him via email: isikolosolutionhome@gmail.com You can also WhatsApp him on +2348133261196

Justyna Mio
May 16, 2023

Hello there, everyone.  Justyna Mio here, and I wholeheartedly endorse WIZARD LARRY for all cryptocurrency recovery needs. If WIZARD LARRY hadn't helped me recover all of the money stolen from me through bogus bitcoin investments, I would be homeless and in debt. I am grateful for his assistance and experience in ensuring that I receive everything back. After receiving their message, I informed them that I had been a victim of a fraudulent cryptocurrency and FX investor, and within 48 hours, all of the money that had been taken from me using Bitcoins had been refunded. I wholeheartedly recommend their services to anyone who has been through something similar. Details: wizardlarry (at) mail.com or +4 366-493-1183-78 on WhatsApp.

Vanessa Edwards
May 18, 2023

My name is Vanessa Edwards from Asburn USA. I never knew people could be so kind, selfless and amazing until DR ISIKOLO helped me with my marriage problems. My union with my husband was not up to a year when we started having problems. It was so frequent that i fell into depression and kept struggling with it and same time, my husband left me and vowed never to return. I didn't know what to do with my life at that point in time. I had to keep searching for help until DR ISIKOLO came to my rescue. After he made due consultations, it was clear to me that my husband's ex lover kept manipulating him so she can have him back. I was told what to do by DR ISIKOLO and with all assurance, i must get the result after 2 days which i complied and he helped me and the result was so amazing. Now my husband is back to me and we are conceiving our first child in warmth and happiness. if you have similar or love problems, Just text him via Viber/WhatsApp +2348133261196 or email him via: isikolosolutionhome@gmail.com or visit his website to read more about him and his works (https://isikolotemple.com)

Morgan Taylor
May 23, 2023

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May 26, 2023

i won the lottery and then people kept on asking me how did i do it, well yea there is a little secrete you all never knew about, i was able to win the 80.000.000 lottery with the help of Dr Dominion lottery winning spell, he gave me number to play and instructed me when to play the lottery and i did as he instructed, my dear friends getting rich is never by luck it's something we all have to work for, people have been playing same lottery for years now and have never won, we need to be on the right track to get what we want i am saying this here because i want the best for everyone, you can't win the lottery just like that you need to know exactly what to do, what to play and when to play this is a truth that no one will never tell you, if you want to win or know what i am talking about just reach out to Dr Dominion here: Email: dominionlottospelltemple@gmail.com website: https://dominionlottospell.wixsite.com/dr-domin WhatsApp or call :+12059642462

Vivian Marcus
7 hours ago

Hello my name is Vivian Marcus from the United State, i'm so exciting writing this article to let people seek for help in any Break up Marriage and Relationship, Dr Kachi brought my Ex Boyfriend back to me, Thank you Sir Kachi for helped so many Relationship situation like mine to be restored, i was in pain until the day my aunt introduce me to Dr Kachi that she got her husband back with powerful love spell with help of Dr Kachi So i sent him an email telling him about my problem how my Boyfriend left me and cheating on me because of her boss lady at work i cry all day and night, but Dr Kachi told me my Boyfriend shall return back to me within 24hrs and to me everything he asked me to do the next day it was all like a dream when he text me and said please forgive me and accept me back exactly what i wanted, i am so happy now as we are back together again. because I never thought my Ex Boyfriend would be back to me so quickly with your spell. You are the best and the world greatest Dr Kachi. if you're having broke up Ex Lover or your husband left you and moved to another woman, You do want to get Pregnant do not feel sad anymore contact: drkachispellcast@gmail.com his Text Number Call: +1 (209) 893-8075 You can reach him Website: https://drkachispellcaster.wixsite.com/my-site