Bill of lading is Perhaps most important document related to the shipping industry as someone can loose money if attention is not given while handling these bills of lading. To define “bill of lading”
“It is a document issued to the shipper by the Master of the vessel on behalf of the carrier for the goods shipped onboard that vessel”
A Bill of lading serves mainly three functions
1) It acts as the receipt of goods
2) It is document of title
3) It is evidence of contract of agreement or contract of carriage
To proceed further it is expected that one is well versed with the terms like Shipper, consignee, Receiver, carrier.
Very brief introduction about these three functions
1) It acts as the receipt of goods: Receipt of goods is the straightforward thing. Whether we leave our car for servicing, pay our utility bills or buy an electronic item, we want receipt for all these. Similarly when we receive the goods onboard, we are suppose to issue a receipt. Bill of lading act as the receipt of the cargo received onboard.
2) It is evidence of contact of carriage: So it is only evidence that there is a contract of carriage between shipper and carrier but it is not the contract of carriage itself.
Q: Can you think of last time you saw actual contact of carriage ?
3) It is document of title: Title means right to the ownership. In case of bill of lading it implies that whoever has the bill of lading can claim the cargo by presenting the bill of lading to the master of the vessel. While the ship is in the sea passage, the present owner of the cargo can negotiate with the potential buyer of the cargo and if agreed he can transfer the ownership of the cargo by transferring the bill of lading to him. This way Bill of lading can change several hands and the final holder of the bill of lading will also be the owner of the cargo. That makes the bill of lading a negotiable document.
Q: Are all bills of lading negotiable and serves as document of title ? Well not exactly. There are Different types of bill of ladings and some are negotiable too.
About Capt Rajeev Jassal
Capt. Rajeev Jassal has sailed for over 19 years mainly on crude oil, product and chemical tankers. He holds MBA in shipping & Logistics degree from London. He has done extensive research on quantitatively measuring Safety culture onboard and safety climate ashore which he believes is the most important element for safer shipping.